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Bell's Theorem

When Einstein, Poldalsky, and Rosen came up with the “thought experiment” which now bears their name -- or in short hand, the EPR Experiment -- the idea was to demonstrate a fatal flaw in the new theory (new at the time) of Quantum Physics.  Decades later, the experiments were conducted which provided the first evidence that elementary particles separated by a substantial distance, could, in fact, have a near instantaneous long-distant relationship (or at the very least, an information exchange which would exceed the speed of light) -- something Einstein and others had hoped to avoid.  

Things got even worse when subsequently, Irish physicist John Stewart Bell showed that “all conceivable models of Reality must incorporate this instant connection.”  

Succinctly stated, Bell’s Theorem [1] states that:

“despite the fact that Relativity prohibits instantaneous connections,

 despite the fact that no such connections have ever been observed either in EPR experiments or any other,

despite the fact that quantum theory itself predicts no observable instant connections,

          The reality of the EPR particles is such that their connection is, in fact, non-local.”  [emphasis added]  

As Herbert has pointed out: “Bell’s Theorem (i.e. Reality must be non-local) is remarkable for several reasons: 1) it is a mathematical proof, not a conjecture or speculation, 2) it is a proof about Reality and not Appearances, and 3) it is counter-intuitive -- i.e. why should everywhere local facts need to be supported by a non-local reality?” [1]  

According to Peat [2], “A distinguishing aspect of the quantum mechanical description of nature is its nonlocality.  Bohr, for example, stressed the undivided wholeness inherent in the quantum mechanical description of nature.  The essential feature of the double slit experiment is a semi-wholeness in which changes made at one slit, located a macroscopic distance from the other, result in overall changes to the interference pattern.

“The non-locality inherent in a pair of initially correlated particles that become separated by a macroscopic distance has been investigated by Bell [3] and in a variety of experiments. [4] These experiments demonstrate a non-local correlation that cannot be explained with reference to any "local" theory in classical physics.”  

“What Bell's Theorem demonstrates is an essential wholeness within the quantum system and a correlation of its total state that can only be understood in non-local terms.” [emphasis added]  

Bell’s Theorem -- i.e. reality must be non-local -- is a mathematical proof of the inherent connectedness of the universe, as further demonstrated by:  

Mach’s Principle         Connective Physics         The Fifth Element  

And aspects of Zero-Point Energy, as well as making ever more plausible the reality of Alice in Barium-Titanate Land.


EPR Experiment         Pauli Exclusion Principle         Nonlocality

Forward to:

Casimir Effect         Spin         Superconductivity



[1]  Herbert, N., 1998, <http://mail.cruzio.com/~quanta/bell.html>

[2]  Subtle Connection: Non-Locality, Bell's Theorem, Coherent States and the Form of the Wave Function <http://www.fdavidpeat.com/bibliography/essays/healtech.htm>    [3]  J.S. Bell, Physics 1, 1964, pg 195.

[4]  For example see A. Aspect, A. Dalibard and G. Roger, Physics Review Letters 49, 1982, pg 1804.



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