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The concept of Monoatomic Elements, particularly those referred to as the ORME, have a well-established scientific rationale.  Included below for convenient reference are some of the many papers which deal with the subject, including quotes, additional comments and information not readily incorporated within other narratives.  

MICROCLUSTERS [Michael A. Duncan and Dennis H. Rouvray, Scientific American, December 1989, pages 110-115]:  

“Microclusters consist of tiny aggregates comprising from two to several hundred atoms.”  These “small aggregates of atoms constitute a distinct phase of matter.”  “How might the atoms reconfigure themselves if freed from the influence of the matter that surrounds them?  If the substance is a metal, how small must its cluster be to avoid the characteristic sharing of free electrons that underlies conductivity?”  “Many cluster properties are determined by the fact that a cluster is mostly surface.” [emphasis added. Thus making a Cubic-Face centered crystalline form important?] “When electrons are shared by the whole cluster in a delocalized pattern, so that negative charge is no greater at one point than another, the cluster may take on certain aspects of solid metal, such as conductivity.”  “Lone atoms grip their electrons more tightly than clusters of atoms grip shared electrons.”  Gold clusters supported on a substrate will reach the melting point of solid gold only if they contain 1,000 or more atoms.”  [emphasis added]  

SUPERDEFORMATION OF NUCLEI [“New Radioactivities,” Walter Greiner and Aurel Sandulescu, Scientific American, March 1990, pages 58-67]:  

“An atomic nucleus can spontaneously restructure itself, occasionally ejecting rare clusters of protons and neutrons.”  These clusters can be any number of nucleons, e.g. 14 or 24; but the emission of a cluster of nucleons other than say an alpha particle (a He nucleus composed of two protons and two neutrons) is much rarer than alpha emission.  “The structure of the nucleus arises from two types of interactions: strong and electromagnetic.  As a result of the strong interaction, or nuclear force, protons bind to neutrons and to each other.  The nuclear force binds nucleons very tightly but acts over a very short range.  To separate two neutrons that are one fermi [10-15 meter] apart, for instance, requires an energy of about one million electron volts [1 Mev].  On the other hand, only about 10 electron volts is needed to dissociate two nucleons that are 10 fermis apart.  As a result of the electromagnetic interaction, or Coulomb force, protons repel other protons.  Although the Coulomb force is weaker than the nuclear force, it acts over a much longer range.  If two protons are one fermi apart, the Coulomb force is about 100 times weaker than the nuclear force.  Yet at a distance of 10 fermis, the Coulomb force is about 10 times stronger than the nuclear force.”   

[Thus, if a cluster of neutrons and protons -- in the normal course of the nucleus vibrating with the absorption of energy -- move away from the bulk of the nucleus, they can reach the point where the distance from the cluster to the main nucleus is closer to 10 fermis than 1 fermi and the Coulomb force overpowers the nuclear force.  For the heavier elements, such as Uranium (with 92 protons and anywhere from 140 to 146 neutrons, the odds of a cluster getting too far away from the main nucleus is much greater.  Uranium-232, thus spontaneously emits alpha particles, and less often spontaneously fissions in such elemental combinations as Neon-24 and Lead-208 (the latter numbers being the total number of nucleons in each of the elements’ nuclei.]  

Nobel Laureate Niels Bohr, a Danish physicist, believed that a large nucleus could be modeled after a drop of liquid.  In this fashion, “a nuclear drop vibrates to some extent as it absorbs energy.  Because of the vibrations, the drop can deform into two smaller nuclear drops connected by a long neck.  As the distance between the two smaller nuclear drops increases, the potential barrier (the nuclear forces between the two drops) decreases.  The smaller drops can then penetrate the potential barrier as long as the energy of the decay products (the small drops) is less than the energy of the deformed nucleus.” 

The energy of a “parent nucleus includes not only the energy associated with the mass of all the protons and neutrons, but also a binding energy -- the energy required to hold the nucleus together.”  “The binding energy per nucleon can deviated greatly from the average.  It is about 7 Mev for helium-4 and about 9 Mev for Iron 56.”   [Thus a high energy nucleus can spontaneously transform to lower-energy nuclei, but not the other way around.]  

The nuclei of different elements consist of shells occupied by a certain number of protons and neutrons, much in the manner of the electron shell structure surrounding the nucleus.  “If the shells of a nucleus are completely filled, as are those of calcium and lead, the nucleus is stable and consequently spherical.”  “Stable nuclei usually consist of a ‘magic number’ of protons or neutrons; that is, they have 2, 8, 20, 28, 40, 50, 82, 126, or 184 protons or neutrons.  Nuclei that have double magic numbers are particularly stable -- for example, calcium-48 (20 protons and 28 neutrons) or lead 208 (82 protons and 126 neutrons).”  The Pauli exclusion principle “holds that a proton cannot occupy an energy state filled by another proton.  The same is true of neutrons.  As a result, each proton fills one energy state, starting with the state that has the least energy and filling as many states as there are protons.  The neutrons fill another set of energy states.”   

When the outermost shell of either protons or neutrons is not filled, and the number of protons and/or neutrons depart from the ‘magic numbers’, the nuclear structure is unstable.  This can result in superasymmetric fission of the element.  “Superasymmetric fission produces two fragments that differ greatly in mass and charge.  The emission of the smaller of these two fragments produces radiation known as cluster radioactivity.  The cluster is usually several times larger than an alpha particle.”  What physicists call “the collective model holds that the outer part of the nucleus can deform when the outer nucleons move with respect to the nucleons of the inner nucleus.  [Thus] this collective motion, or deformation, derives from the liquid-drop model.  Cold fission can also be expected, as a nucleus splits into two ‘unexcited’ nuclei.”  “Unlike the ordinary (hot) process, the energy released in cold fission does not excite the emitted nuclei into high-energy states.  The nuclear fragments from cold fission are therefore more spherical and less elongated than the nuclear fragments from ordinary fission.”  

INERTIAS OF SUPERDEFORMED BANDS [Y. R. Shimizu, E. Vigezzi, and R. A. Broglia, Physical Review C, April 1990, pages 1861-1864]:  

“The most collective phenomenon displayed by the many-body nuclear system is independent particle motion, where all nucleons adjust their motions so that each proton and neutron moves independently in an average field.  Striking regularities are associated with this phenomenon: for example, the appearance of large gaps in the single-particle system and of ‘magic’ numbers for both protons and neutrons leading to especially stable systems, known as closed shell nuclei.”  “New shell gaps appear by inducing a quadrupole distortion in the nuclear shape, where the ratio of the major to minor axis is 2:1.”  

“Such deformations play an important role in the process of spontaneous fission, where the 2:1 configuration is connected with the second minimum of the fission barrier, as well as in heavy ion collisions, leading to resonant molecular-like behavior.”  “The discovery of superdeformed rotational bands during the past years opens a new chapter in the study of nuclei under conditions of extreme deformations and angular momenta.”  These superdeformations result in high-spin, rapidly rotating nuclei.” [emphasis added]  

“The spectra of rapidly rotating nuclei reveal two distinct components in the buildup of the total angular momentum, corresponding to alignment of orbital angular momentum or individual particles and to collective rotation.”  The first is sensitive to the single-particle alignment and the second to the collective properties of the rotational motion.  The difference can be related to an ‘apparent’ alignment.  [This paper provides calculations on elements with the Samarium (Sm) 146 core: Gadolinium (Gd) 149 and 150, and Dysprosium (Dy) 152 -- Rare Earths of the Lanthanum series.  This is just one instance of elements in the middle of the periodic table being of the most interest.]  

SUPERDEFORMATION IN 104, 105Pd [A. O. Macchiavelli, R. M. Diamond, C. W. Beausang, J. Burde, M. A. Deleplanque, R. J. McDonald, F. S. Stephens, and J. E. Draper, Physical Review C, August 1988, pages 1088-1091]:  

“The understanding of the nuclear shape requires a knowledge of macroscopic properties, determined by the interplay of Coulomb, surface, and rotational energies, and of microscopic properties associated with the detailed motion of the nucleons near the Fermi surface.  Of special interest are those shapes known as ‘superdeformed’ (SD) where the nucleus acquires a very elongated shape that can be approximately represented by an ellipsoid where the ratio of the long to short axis is considerably larger than that of normal deformation ~1: 3.1.  Within the framework of the anisotropic harmonic-oscillator model one can expect the existence of favorable shell gaps that appear regularly as a function of deformation and nucleon number.  They are predicted to occur for particular ‘superdeformed magic numbers’ and at deformations corresponding to integer ratios of the lengths of the axes (e.g. epsilon = 0.6 corresponds to a ratio of 2: 1).”  “It is important, at this stage, to determine experimentally the regions where superdeformation occurs.”  “This is a new mass region where discrete superdeformed bands have been found at high spins, the other known regions being around 152Dy and in the light Ce-Nd nuclei.”  [The Pd mass region is Ruthenium (Ru), Rhodium (Rh), Palladium (Pd) and Silver (Ag).]   

POSSIBLE DISCONTINUITY IN OCTUPOLE BEHAVIOR IN THE Pt-Hg REGION [C. S. Lim, R. H. Spear, W. J. Vermeer, and M. P. Fewell, Physical Review C, March 1989, pages 1142-1144]:  

“Recently Cottle, et al have proposed a parametrization which provides a unified interpretation of 31- states of spherical and weakly deformed nuclei with Z > 28.  Apart from the well-deformed rare-earth and heavy actinide nuclei, which would not be expected to conform to this parametrization, they found that nuclei in the Pt region (Z=78-82, N=108-126) were also anomalous.  This anomaly manifests itself most directly in a discontinuity of about 1 Mev in the excitation energies” between the Pt isotopes and those of Hg.  “A discontinuity of this magnitude is not observed in any other part of the periodic table.”  [This region includes Platinum (Pt), Gold (Au), and Mercury (Hg).]  

COLLECTIVE AND SINGLE PARTICLE STRUCTURE IN 103Rh [R. P. Schmidt, H. Dejbakhsh, and G. Mouchaty, Physical Review C, February 1988, page 621]:  

“A sudden shape transition from spherical to stable prolate deformations” has been observed and the subshell closures at Z=40 and N=56 have been shown to be the cause of this abrupt shape change.” “The shape change results from the strong attractive interaction between neutron and proton orbitals with large spatial overlap.”  “As the number of protons increases, the shape transition becomes more gradual.  However, the nature of the shape transition in the Z>42 and N>56 region is not well understood.  In part, this is reflected in the level structures of the (Z³42, N³56) nuclei such as Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag isotopes.  These nuclei have features which can be reproduced by vastly different models.”  

[Monoatomic and/or microclusters of elements, “freed from the influence of the matter that surrounds them” are more likely to superdeform and spontaneously fission.  When, in addition, the shell structure allows for instability by virtue of the fact elements with unfilled sub-shells are less stable, then they are more likely to superdeform -- particularly when in the monoatomic or microcluster state.  Superdeformation (when the deformation is ³ 2:1) of the element is likely to result in a high spin state.  This in turn leads such states allowing for the transfer of energy from nucleus to nucleus without any loss of energy.   Such a condition implies a nuclear Superconductivity!]  

QUANTUM SIZE EFFECTS IN RAPIDLY ROTATING NUCLEI [Y. R. Shimizu and R. A. Broglia, Physical Review C, April 1990, pages 1865-1868.]:  

“It has been conjectured that the usual Cooper instability will not exist any more in small particles containing a reduced number of fermions, like, e.g., metallic particles.  Therefore, superconductivity should disappear for particles in the quantal size effects (QSE’s) regime, when the energy difference between two discrete one-electron states is comparable to the energy gap of the superconducting state.  This means that small superconductors with fewer than about 104 to 105 electrons as well as, e.g. atomic nuclei should be strongly affected by quantal size effects.”  “The transition from pair-correlated to normal system with increasing angular momentum involves the coupling between the bands associated with the ground state and the excited states representing fluctuations in the pairing field.  The understanding of the role played by pairing fluctuations in nuclei, which is one of the central questions of high-spin physics...”  

[Under magnetic fields in the range of 700,000 gauss, it has been observed that high-spin states allow for transferring energy from nucleus to nucleus without loss of energy.  This implies the existence of high-spin states (even without magnetic fields) which may lead to superconductivity.  Example: The (relatively high temperature, 93 oK) superconductor, Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBa2Cu3O7), is formed by repeated healing and cooling of the compound.  This heating and cooling results in water vapor from the atmosphere bleeding into the compound to combine hydrogen and oxygen elements in such a way that some of the copper is left in a monoatomic state, and thus available for superconductivity.  In this respect, the implication is for an asymmetric high spin nucleus, arranged in a line some 6.3 Angstroms apart, resonating in two dimensions, to perpetuate the wave and achieve superconductivity.  The atoms seem to space themselves automatically, and form the nuclear equivalent of Cooper Pairs.  The nucleons screen the electrons, allowing them to pair, and thereby losing their particle aspects -- the fermions thus become Bosons (Bose Condensation).  What one achieves is a nucleus with light flowing, instead of electrons.]  

BOUND STATES, COOPER PAIRING, AND BOSE CONDENSATION IN TWO DIMENSIONS [Mohit Randeria, Ji-Min Duan, and Lih-Yir Shieh, Physical Review Letters, 27 February 1989, pages 981-984]:  

“For a dilute gas of fermions interacting via an arbitrary pair potential in d=2 dimensions, we show that the many-body ground state is unstable to s-wave pairing if and only if a two-body bound state exists.” “There’s been a resurgence of interest in superconductivity with the discovery of the high-transition-temperature (Tc) copper-oxide superconductors.  Quite apart from the highly controversial issue of the pairing mechanism, the high-Tc materials have several characteristics which are strikingly different from the traditional superconductors.”  “We find the existence of a s-wave bound state in the two-body problem is a necessary and sufficient condition for a many-body (s-wave) instability for a d-2 dilute gas.  This is in marked contrast with the d-3 result.”  “The distinguishing feature of the d-2 analysis presented here is that the s-wave mean-field equations can be solved exactly over the whole parameter range, from Cooper pairing to Bose condensation, to obtain a very simple and transparent result.”  

THE NEW SUPERCONDUCTORS [Frank J. Adrian and Dwaine O. Cowan, Chemical and Engineering News, Volume 70, Number 51, December 21, 1992, pages 24-41]:  

“Many, but not all, conductors become superconductors when cooled sufficiently.  Conductivity takes place via mobile electrons in a conduction band.  Superconductivity, as shown by the classic BCS Theory... involves pairing of conduction electrons by some interelectron attraction and a condensation of these pairs, known as Cooper pairs, to form a macroscopic quantum state.  This state has many unique properties include zero electrical resistance and perfect diamagnetism, expelling an external magnetic filed up to a limiting critical field strength.  Electrical resistance is zero because the Cooper pair condensate moves as a coherent quantum mechanical entity, which lattice vibrations and impurities cannot disrupt by scattering individual Cooper pairs in the same way they scatter single electrons in a conductor.”  The attraction between the electrons may be “due to their interaction with vibrations of the crystal lattice, which are called phonons”, or “an unconventional electron-pairing mechanism mediated not by lattice vibrations but by interaction of the conduction electrons with charge or electron spin (magnetic) fluctuations in some electronic subsystem.”  In many cases, the superconductivity depends on the elements or molecules having “a fractional excess or deficiency of electrons.”  “All the cuprate superconductors have two-dimensional copper oxide planes in which conductivity and superconductivity take place.”  There are, however, some compounds which are three-dimensional superconductors. [emphasis added.  This relates to a similar fractional excess or deficiency of protons in the Rhodium and Iridium model, which may explain the greater likelihood of their being involved in the ORME process.]  

“A number of properties characterize the superconducting state.  Among them are the electron spin and orbital state of the Cooper pair, the superconducting energy gap, magnetic field penetration depth, and coherence length.  The spin state of a Cooper pair can be either singlet (anti-parallel spins) or triplet (parallel spins).  The orbital state can be a spherically symmetric s pair (s wave), analogous to an atomic s orbital, or it can be a p or d pair (p or d waves), analogous to atomic p and d orbitals.  The Pauli exclusion principle restricts spin-singlet pairs to s or d orbital states and the spin-triplet state to a p orbital state.  The energy gap is the energy required to break up a Cooper pair in the superconductor.  It rises with decreasing temperature.”  

“When a material is in its superconducting state, it excludes from its interior an applied magnetic field up to a critical magnetic field strength.  A superconductor also expels a pre-existing field when it undergoes transition to the superconducting state, a phenomenon known as the Meissner Effect.  The magnetic field penetration depth is the distance an applied magnetic field can penetrate a superconductor.  The penetration depth is temperature dependent; infinite at Tc and at its minimum at 0 oK.  Most elemental metal superconductors (called Type I) lose their superconductivity in very low magnetic fields.  Type II superconductors, which include the cuprate and organic materials, can tolerate stronger magnetic fields because the field penetrates in cylindrical regions of the material called flux tubes and the remainder of the material remains superconductive until the flux tubes overlap at an upper critical magnetic field strength.”  

“The distance over which the quantum state maintains its phase coherence in a superconductor is typically much greater than atomic dimensions.  This coherence length can very along different crystal axes.”  “In metallic superconductors, coherence lengths can be thousands of angstroms.  In high-Tc superconductors they are smaller (tens of angstroms).”  The ac Josephson effect “is the oscillating tunneling current produced when a direct current voltage is applied across a junction between two superconductors.”  Cooper pairs “simultaneously form and condense into a coherent quantum state at the superconductor's transition temperature (Tc).” “Cooper pairing and superconductivity take place in the ‘foam’ produced by electron-phonon interactions on the surface of the ‘Fermi sea’ of occupied states.”  “At Tc, the temperature is low enough that thermal agitation at the Fermi surface cannot disrupt the pairing process.  Consequently, many Cooper pairs form simultaneously and create the superconducting state.”  This can be seen as a “condensation of the Cooper pairs to form this coherent quantum state.”

 The Meissner effect  “arises from the quantum nature of superconductivity.”  “Because a superconductor is a macroscopic quantum state, its wave function must be unchanged for any closed path within the superconductor.”  “This same restriction, when applied to orbital angular momentum, is what specifies the allowed electronic orbitals in the Bohr model of the atom.  For a state composed of charged particles (like the superconducting state), the phase change is related to the magnetic flux through the closed path.”  “The flux through a superconducting ring can only have quantized values consistent with this equation; if necessary, a supercurrent will flow in the ring so as to adjust the net flux to the nearest quantized value.”  The “Meissner effect is a consequence of flux quantization.  Inside a superconductor in a magnetic field there will always be some closed path small enough that the quantized flux value closest to the flux determined by the magnetic field and the area encircled by the path is zero.  Thus, the superconductor will adjust the net flux in this region to zero.”           

“The argument will then apply to a slightly larger path around the original path, and so on, until the field has been completely expelled from the superconductor except for a thin surface layer known as the magnetic field penetration depth.”  “It takes energy to expel a magnetic field from a superconductor.  This fact can actually be seen in the dramatic phenomenon of magnetic levitation in which a magnet will float freely above a superconductor at the point where the upward force generated by the field-expulsion energy balances the downward force of gravity.  The energy cost of expelling a magnetic field from a superconductor places an upper limit on the strength of the magnetic field that a superconductor can expel.  A material loses superconductivity above a critical field, Hc, where the field-expulsion energy exceeds the stabilization energy of the superconductor.”   

“In type II superconductors the coherence length is comparable to or smaller than the penetration depth.  These materials completely expel a magnetic field up to some relatively low value, Hc1, known as the lower critical field.  But unlike type I superconductors, they remain superconducting above Hc1 by entering a mixed state in which the magnetic field penetrates only some regions of the superconductor.  These more or less equally spaced cylindrical regions are called flux tubes.  Strictly speaking, the magnetic fields in the flux tubes are generated by supercurrents that circulate around each flux tube.”  

“A tunneling junction... is formed when two conductors, two superconductors or a conductor and a superconductor are separated by an insulating barrier that is thin enough for charge carriers on opposite sides of the barrier to be coupled by overlap of their wave functions in the barrier region.  This allows the charge carriers, even though they lack the energy to surmount the barrier, to ‘tunnel’ through it.  Two types of junctions are especially important: metal-superconductor junctions and Josephson junctions.”  “Current in a metal conductor is carried by electrons, whereas in a superconductor it is carried by electron pairs.  Current cannot tunnel between a superconductor and a metal conductor until a voltage large enough to break the Cooper pairs is applied.”  “Two superconductors separated by a very narrow insulating barrier form a Josephson junction.”  

“Current tunneling through such a junction would have novel properties because the carrier states coupled through the barrier are not single-particle states but macroscopic quantum states containing many superconducting pairs.  A Josephson junction can also be formed by a point contact between superconducting grains or by a severe constriction between two bulk regions of the superconductor.”  “Flow of a supercurrent (Is) through a junction requires a quantum mechanical phase difference (d) between the superconducting states on opposite sides of the junction.”  For a Josephson junction operating at a nonzero voltage, an alternating current is superimposed on the direct current.  Organic superconductors have highly anisotropic conductivity. “About 40 super-conductive salts of organic donors and complex anions have been found.” “For the organic conductors, there is remarkably good correlation between their conductivity at room temperature and Tc” with the poorer room temperature conductors having a higher Tc.  

[Comments based on David Hudson’s research:  “From a microcluster point of view, the minimum number of atoms in a particle cluster for Iridium is 9 atoms, Palladium, 7 atoms, and Platinum, 5 atoms.  In the monoatomic state, there is no energy bound in the system, but only in the individual atom.  The internal temperature of a microcluster of atoms might be in the range of 20 to 100 oK, while a di-atomic element might be at 10 oK and a mono-atomic element at 1 oK. Taking a sample to the monoatomic state is equivalent to going to zero oK, and implies the conditions for a superconductor!  Once a sample is monoatomic, it stays monoatomic!  Gold (Au) in the monoatomic form is a white powder.”]  

[“Procedures for gold mining are from the Bureau of Mines booklet.  This includes a drying process -- but if the material is allowed to dry in sunlight, it may implode.  Implosion is the ticket rather than explosion, as shown by a pencil stood on its eraser, not being knocked over but charred on one side.  In addition, there is no residue left of the sample.  Once dry, the sample will not react or melt -- it is chemically inert!    The sample becomes a snow white powder after annealing with an inert gas.  Gold chloride is typically in the form of Au12Cl36, instead of AuCl3; i.e. a metal cluster.  Impurities travel with the metal clusters.  Au has a 5d10 6s1 structure (the s1 portion being similar to H, Li, Na).  However, gold is not reactive!  The reason is that gold reacts with itself!  Boiling with Aqua Regia gives, at best, Au2.  Au is no longer a metal.  When annealed, the white powder undergoes a 4/9th or 44% weight reduction.”  A single-element superconductor will respond to a magnetic field of 2 x 10-15 ergs.  Note that the Earth's magnetic field is 0.78 gauss (where one gauss is 1018 ergs).  SQUIDS could see thoughts in the brain by picking up magnetic fields.]  

[Comment:  The ratio of the superconductor threshold magnetic field to the Earth’s is 2 x 10-15 erg / 0.78 x 1018, or about 2.56 x 10-33.  This corresponds to the Planck Length of 1.616 x 10-33, where according to Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, and John Archibald Wheeler [Gravitation, W.H. Freeman & Company, San Francisco, 1973], dimensionality of spacetime, implies a distance or vector between events.  (An “event” being a means of measuring in curved spacetime -- inasmuch as “space tells matter how to move” in a geodesic), and “matter tells space how to curve”.)  Quantum geometrodynamics “predicts violent fluctuations in the geometry at distances on the order of the Planck length.” As nearly as one can estimate, these fluctuations give space at small distances a “multiply connected” or “foamlike” character.  “This lack of smoothness may well deprive even the concept of dimensionality itself of any meaning at the Planck scale of distances."]           

[Hudson’s comments:  “Superconductors are defined best, not as current flowing without resistance, but by the fact that a superconductor does not allow magnetic potential to exist within the superconductor.  Initially, the superconductor needs an external magnetic field to be rejected.  For example, the Earth's geomagnetic field could initiate the Meissner field.  And given more magnetic potential, there will be more light, and a greater Meissner field (until the external magnetic potential causes the Meissner field to collapse).  But once initiated, if you remove the external magnetic field, the superconductor will continue to flow forever. In effect, superconductors are in a world of their own.  In superconductivity, all atoms in a material are acting like a single atom (where time is timeless).  They are coherent, resonating in unison with the zero point energy.  Two superconductors touch when their Meissner fields touch.  This connection is thought of philosophically as “one heart, one mind”, the “Knowledge of good and evil.”  Superconductor flow can levitate on the Earth’s magnetic field.  Superconductors exclude all, implying that they are no longer in our space-time.  Superconductors are connecting cells of the human body.]  

LIVING SYSTEMS [“Magnetic Flux Quantization and Josephson Behavior in Living Systems,” F. Del Giudice, S. Doglia, M. Milani, C. W. Smith, and G. Vitiello, Physica Scripta, 40, pages 786-791:  

“A coherent dynamics has been proposed in the last decades by many authors as the fundamental driving force of living processes.” “Coherent excitations in biological systems have already been proposed to arise as a consequence of a long range correlation among the phases of the oscillating electric dipoles which are the microscopic components of living systems.  Josephson suggested that peculiar phenomena might occur when two superconductors are separated by a very small distance giving rise to a so-called ‘weak-link-junction’.  At a theoretical level the basic mechanism of the Josephson effect is the quantum tunneling across such a junction barrier of the bosons responsible for the correlations existing in two separate superconductors.  In this way an interaction between two neighboring although separated domains is established.”  “The Joshephson mechanism is very general indeed and applies beyond the special case of superconductivity.”  “The correlation among electric dipoles, which has been proposed to be at work in living matter, points to the correlation being among electron pairs.”  

“A living system can be considered as a set of many microscopic components whose interplay occurs through a network of mutually coupled and sequentially ordered chemical reactions.  This macroscopic ordering could be considered as emerging from the collective behavior of the elementary components.  Collective behavior is possible because the dynamics is able to produce ‘quasi-particles’ playing the role of long-range messengers.  The existence of a correlation implies that the physical states of the system must also be coherent states of these ‘quasi-particles’. Most biocomponents are polar molecules, some being in excited metastable states.  [Thus] the dynamics of an assembly of electric dipoles might be considered as the fundamental biological dynamical process."  [emphasis mine]  

“The oscillations of the electric dipoles are able to produce coherent electromagnetic fields whose phase is locked to the phase of the [external] magnetic field.  An external electromagnetic field can become phase correlated only if its energy does not disrupt the coherence.  Very strong electromagnetic fields can actually disrupt the correlation and consequently probe the system in an uncorrelated manner, in which case no non-thermal effects would appear.  The coherent structure of the matter field in biological systems may reveal itself only when probed by low intensity electromagnetic fields whose frequency lies in a suitable range to interact with the frequencies of the correlations.” [emphasis added.  This explains why EMF Hazards and pollution are real!]  

Evidence has been found that: “Josephson-like phenomena are occurring in living systems.”  “Magnetic fields of the order of 60 mT could lead to very large changes in the dielectric constants of dilute solutions of enzymes.  While the dielectric constant is very sensitive to the displacement of single ions, the magnetic field to be effective must be able to overcome thermal fluctuations in ion motion over a volume of the order of a micron in diameter.  This clearly indicates the presence of a cooperative phenomenon capable of increasing the susceptibility in a magnetic field.  The effect disappeared above a critical value of the field suggesting a Meissner effect. Also the effects disappeared if the solution was completely sterile biologically.”   

It appears there “is a small superconductive region with linear dimensions smaller than the London penetration depth.”  “The assumption was made that if room temperature superconductive effects exist in association with living cells, some of the other basic experiments of superconductivity should also work.”  “The appearance of a Josephson phenomenology in yeast cells is a positive test for the general idea that coherence would be the fundamental feature of biological dynamics.  This would open the way to understand why and how external electromagnetic fields could interfere with the fundamental processes of cell division and conversely how this cellular process could induce electromagnetic phenomena.”  “The intracellular coherence... through the Josephson effect give rise to an intercellular coherence.”  [emphasis added]  

LIVING CELLS [“Nonlinear Properties of Coherent Electric Vibrations in Living Cells”, E. Del Giudice, S. Doglia, and M. Milani, Physics Letters, Volume 85A, Number 6,7, 12 October 1981, pages 402-404.}:  

Froehlich “describes a biological system as a set of oscillating electric dipoles, open to an external energy flow supplied by metabolic reactions.  The essential assumption made is that the system is dissipative, i.e. the system cannot retain the incoming energy for an appreciable time.  When the external flow overcomes a given threshold, a Bose-like condensation occurs in a particular vibrational mode.  The incoming energy is no more thermally partitioned among the different vibrational modes of the system, but feeds only one of them, giving rise to a giant dipole vibration in that particular longitudinal frequency modes.  A coherent electric polarization wave propagates through the medium.” “It seems then reasonable to expect that nonlinear features would appear in metabolically active cells where very high internal electric fields are present.”  

[Hudson’s Comments:  “Astronauts can now be monitored by monitoring cells taken from them and maintained at home!  In holograms, one piece of the body encodes all of the body.  Even the silver in a photograph allows for a complete reconstruction of the object in the photograph.  Superconductivity in living matter is tied to the Zero Point Energy -- all Time is in the ZPE.  The way to the zero point is to get inside the quanta, into the superconductor.  If we fill the body with superconducting elements, so that the body begins to act like a superconductor, then we can come and go in space-time.  We can see all, have omniscience.  In effect, we need to fill the body with light, and thus activating 100% of the brain, along with our ‘junk’ DNA.  (We only use 6-8% of our brain and none of our ‘junk’ DNA -- How could the brain and the DNA have evolved if it were not used at one time!?  This suggests we’ve fallen!)”  Alternatively, we are a hybrid between Homo Erectus and the Anunnaki, and the relevant genes are intentionally or inadvertently turned off!  This suggests that it’s time to get turned on!]  


ORME Biology         ORME Physics          ORME          Tree of Life

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