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Magnetic Pole Shift

New Page -- 11 September 2005

An essential element in the physical makeup of the planet Earth is the existence of a planetary sized geomagnetic field, which for various and sundry reasons appears to periodically change its orientation in terms of the respective positions of it north and south magnetic poles.

Somewhat more dramatically – with Mother Earth (Gaia) often preferring the dramatic – when the north and south magnetic poles reverse their positions, they do so rather abruptly in what is known as a Magnetic Pole Shift. (Relatively minor variations in the pole locations are also magnetic pole shifts, but use lower case letters and result in relatively minor effects; relatively minor.) In the MPS scenario, however, north becomes south, south becomes north, and the comparatively abrupt process of shifting poles and the results occasioned thereby carry with them all manner of unique possibilities.

The Big MPS is not a frequent event – the last occasion apparently occurring some 730,000 years ago. It is accordingly, not one of those events with which the average magnet manufacturer is going to concern himself. But rumors of late have begun circulating that the magnetic poles are about to do a reversal. According to NASCA, “Scientists believe the Earth's magnetic poles are about to reverse themselves – an event that would undoubtedly plunge the world into turmoil, some say complete catastrophe.” The Observer Guardian headlines one article with “Sun's rays to roast Earth as poles flip.” Such pronouncements are at least likely to tweak your attention.

If such is the case, then the reader may wish to consider two aspects of this subject. The first is the physical reality of geomagnetic pole reversals; their history and mechanism. The second is the effects, i.e. what happens when the magnetic world is turned upside down. We'll take first things first.

First Things First

The Earth's geomagnetic field is well known to anyone who's ever used a compass. Such usage is typically on the surface of the earth, but it must be noted that the geomagnetic field permeates the planet itself and extends outward into space. At the surface of the Earth the field is evidenced by the behavior of magnetite material, such as bar magnets, which when suspended and free to rotate, align themselves with the geomagnetic field. By theory and limited observation the magnetic field is believed to extend deep into the Earth, through the Earth's mantle and into its outer core of what is believed to be molten iron. The field also extends into space where it surrounds the Earth in what is termed a magnetosphere (of which the Van Allen Belts are a part).

According to paleomagnetists, the Earth periodically -- every few hundred thousand years -- flips its magnetic field (i.e. the north and south magnetic poles are reversed). Evidence for this peculiar habit is provided by measurements of the orientation of magnetic materials in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and the fact that such orientations have been grouped into distinct periods over the last 178 million years. Based on this evidence, the most recent magnetic pole reversal appears to have occurred some 730,000 years ago, leaving the north and south magnetic poles at 75 degrees North, 102 degrees West, and 67 degrees South and 140 degrees East, respectively. Work by Allan Cox [1] has shown extreme variability in when and where such an event occurs – ranging from a 35 million year hiatus in the Cretaceous Period, to more recent variations of several hundred thousand years between events. Of course, this means that based on the relatively recent past, we're way overdue!

Geomagnetic Variations

For the last hundred years geophysicists have observed a steady and significant weakening in the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. The weakening rate suggests that the magnetic field may vanish altogether within the next 1,500 years [1]. This weakening is about one percent per decade, and has deteriorated over the last two thousand years by about fifty percent. The magnetic field pattern also rotates in some areas by about one degree every ten years [2]. Much more noteworthy, however, are major shifts in the locations of the magnetic poles, in the form of complete reversals and in the form of “excursions”.

Excursions refer to those cases in the sedimentary and volcanic records where the geodynamo apparently failed to complete a geomagnetic field reversal and ended up backtracking. These large leaps in the field direction may have been produced by abnormal secular variations or may be “manifestations of unsuccessful, or aborted, reversal attempts” [1]. For our purposes, the explanation of the causes of an “excursion” or a complete reversal of the magnetic poles is essentially the same, differing only in the intensity of the causal factor -- the lesser intensity events occurring when the geomagnetic field does not quite complete a reversal.

Evidence of reversals in the geomagnetic field indicates 200 reversals over the last 178 million years. This includes a 35-million year hiatus during the Cretaceous period, and 33 reversals in the last 25 million years. Over the last 70 million years, “polarity reversals have been taking place at an increasing rate” [1]. In fact, there have been 9 major reversals in the past 3.6 million years (i.e. on average one every 400,000 years), with the most recent one, 730,000 years ago. Even more noteworthy is evidence of a looping excursion by the geomagnetic field some 28,000 years ago.

The evidence of major variations in the geomagnetic field derives from sedimentary and volcanic lava records. These records provide the timing and location of the magnetic pole from the angle of dip and the horizontal orientation of magnetite material in the sediments and lava flows. Unfortunately, sedimentary records are limited in that they tell us more about the pre- and post-geomagnetic records than about the actual reversal process itself. Lava records, on the other hand, being laid down in a matter of days (instead of thousands of years in the case of sediments) provide much more detail in the description of events in a geomagnetic pole reversal.

It has been assumed by paleomagnetists that geomagnetic pole reversals do not occur instantaneously from one polarity state to the other, but occur over a period that typically spans a few thousand years [1]. However, evidence from lava flows indicate rapid shifts, perhaps taking only a few years [1], OR “fast enough that it would virtually be possible to watch a compass needle move” [3]. Data from the Steens Mountain lava beds in southeastern Oregon , for example, indicate that the geomagnetic poles were moving between 3 degrees and 8 degrees per day! [3, 4, 5, 6].

The paleontological records provide not only evidence of geomagnetic field reversals/excursions and a description of the reversal itself, but also yield clues as to the origins of the geomagnetic field and, albeit indirectly, the possible causes of the geomagnetic field reversals.

Origins and Reversals of the Geomagnetic Field

It has been generally accepted that the geomagnetic field is generated by the motion of free electrons in the convection outer core [1]. Temperatures in the outer core reach those of the sun's surface (5,800 degrees Celsius), allowing the liquid iron of the core to flow as readily as water and conduct electricity slightly better than does copper. According to theory the influence of the Earth's rotation and heat propels the molten iron in the outer core, which when interacting with the magnetic field of the Earth, generates a magnetic field as well, reinforcing the Earth's field [2]. The geodynamo is thus self-perpetuating.

However, this theory does not explain the original origin of the Earth's magnetic field, other than to postulate that it “has been present to some extent throughout geological time” [2]. Neither does the theory explain the cause of the dipole field's decay, nor the forces behind its secular variations (including westward drift). The dipole field, for example, is decaying about ten times faster than can be accounted for in the current theories [1].

Associated theories of geomagnetic pole reversals are similarly flawed. For example, Hoffman [1] suggests that “the reversal phenomenon may be triggered when something disturbs the convection pattern of the core fluid, and with it the magnetic flux” [emphasis added]. This “something” might derive from what some theorists conjecture to be the outer core of the Earth forming a chaotic system, and out of the chaos arising periodic geomagnetic reversals [3].

An alternative theory, but one which has found minimal support, is that a meteorite striking the Earth could loft dust into the atmosphere which would suddenly cool the Earth to the point where the formation of ice caps at the poles could speed the Earth's rotation, and thus in turn cause shearing between the mantle and outer core, and thereby cause the reversal [7]. The flaw here is that major volcanic activity could yield the same result, but that such activity during the Cretaceous Period actually resulted in a stable geomagnetic condition [8].

At the time it was initially proposed, a basic assumption in the outer-core-generated geodynamo theory was that there were no other planetary or solar system induced electromagnetic fields which, in turn, could account for the cause of the geomagnetic field. In effect, the theory was proposed prior to the discovery that the solar system is literally awash in electromagnetic forces. These forces include: the interplanetary magnetic field, the Sun's magnetic field (and its continually progressing reversal every 22 years or so), the solar wind, and the magnetospheres of various planets (including the Earth).

There is also the tendency for geo scientists of every stripe to specialize in their fields of research and thus ignore whatever was happening in the astro sciences! This is not an uncommon occurrence in mainstream, non-holistic science.

Bagenal [9] has shown mathematically that “magnetospheres of rapidly rotating planets with strong magnetic fields [e.g. Jupiter and Saturn] are dominated by rotation while the solar wind controls the plasma flow in smaller magnetospheres of slowly rotating planets [e.g. Earth].” If this is the case, then the Earth's geomagnetic field would have as its primary initiator, and possibly controlling factor, an externally generated field (possibly the solar wind and/or the interplanetary magnetic field).

External Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Geomagnetic Field

The Sun and the solar wind provides the primary influence on the Earth's geomagnetic field. The solar wind consists of charged particles from the sun, which varies with the degree of solar activity. This solar activity is best exemplified by sunspots, and results in a virtual sheet of current flowing from the sun (in turn producing a very complex magnetic field). Meanwhile, the Sun's magnetic field changes from being aligned parallel to its axis of rotation at the minimum of sunspot activity, to perpendicular at the peak of what is referred to as the sunspot cycle [10]. The sunspot cycle and thus the orientation of the Sun's magnetic field has a period, on average, of 22.25 years; and a longer term cycle of 178 years.

Planetary magnetic fields, such as Jupiter and Saturn, are considerably less documented, but appear to be rotation based. Because of the solar wind, the planets' magnetic fields in outer space take on the configuration of tear-shaped magnetospheres. In the case of Earth, the strange orientation of the magnetic poles twists this tear shape almost 30 degrees, and thus imposes additional complexity to the problem. In the case of Jupiter, its magnetosphere extends out as far as the orbit of Saturn, with material being forcibly “disconnected from Jupiter and flung down the tail” [9].

This electromagnetic movement of charged particles from Jupiter might be termed the “Jupiter Wind”. In each case, the magnetospheres of the planets act as a shield against the effects of the solar wind, but a shield which may not be entirely effective. In the case of the Earth, the geomagnetic pressure very nearly balances the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. This equalized pressure surface layer is termed the “magnetopause” [11], and acts as a shield for 99% of the solar wind [12].

Sunspots, the solar wind, and the interplanetary magnetic field induced primarily by the Sun, have numerous effects on the Earth. The Earth's geomagnetic field, in all likelihood, is caused or originated by the solar effects [9]. Variations in the solar field would also, undoubtedly, effect the Earth. These effects include everything from massive disruptions in electronic or electromagnetic communications during heightened sunspot activity to correlations between sunspot activity and popular revolutions and uprisings. In the latter case, Margaret Thatcher arrived and departed from 10 Downing Street at peak periods in the 11.25 year sunspot cycle [13].

The effects of other planets' electromagnetic fields on the Earth is generally dismissed as insignificant in comparison to the solar effects. While some astrologers may insist that all planetary effects must be taken into account, major effects such as other planets causing or triggering magnetic pole reversals are not considered as remotely possible. This is due to the fact that the solar wind dominates the interplanetary space.

However, if the solar wind was temporarily interrupted in a very limited locale, any planets' magnetosphere might significantly influence the electromagnetic properties of other planets. The basis of this paper is that just such a temporary, limited interruption can and does periodically occur.

Alternative Theory for Geomagnetic Pole Reversals

During those periods which astrologers call “Sun-Jupiter oppositions”, the Earth is situated directly between the Sun and Jupiter. Strictly speaking, because of the differences in the inclination of the orbits of the two planets, such oppositions refer only to the longitudinal dimension—the latitudinal dimension is still considerably different. In most all cases the Earth is not effectively in alignment with the Sun and Jupiter. Instead the Earth is either considerably below or above the line connecting the Sun and Jupiter. A near perfect alignment of the Sun, Earth and Jupiter, when the Earth would quite literally cast an electromagnetic “shadow” on Jupiter's magnetosphere, occurs extremely rarely. Such a near perfect alignment occurs only when the Earth passes between the Sun and Jupiter longitudinally, and simultaneously, the difference in latitude between the Earth and Jupiter is less than one minute of arc. The key factor is that, in those cases when such a near-perfect alignment does occur, the effects may be significant!

The concept being suggested here is that during a near-perfect alignment of the Sun, Earth, and Jupiter -- i.e. the longitudes of Earth and Jupiter exact, and the differences in latitude within less than one minute of arc -- the “Jupiter Wind”, i.e. the giant planet's magnetosphere, responds to the temporary cessation of the dynamic pressure of the solar wind (caused by the Earth's electromagnetic “shadow” falling on Jupiter's magnetosphere) by an electromagnetic surge in the direction of the null spot of the solar wind, i.e. the Earth. Furthermore, this so-called Jupiter Wind consists of charged particles with the more energetic, negatively charged electrons leading the way and leaving the more massive, positively charged protons far behind [11]. The charged particles, no longer constrained by the pressure of the solar wind, are essentially flung out into space in the direction of the Earth.

The alignment is a dynamic event with the solar wind quickly reasserting its pressure as the Earth moves out from between the Sun and Jupiter. For this reason, with the charged particles reaching the Earth initially being electrons, and inasmuch as the protons might be turned back by the solar wind by the removal of the Earth's shadow before the protons can reach the Earth, the portion of the Jupiter Wind reaching the Earth might be predominantly electrons. Because of the distance from Jupiter to the Earth (about four times the distance from the Earth to the Sun) and the time for the Earth's electromagnetic shadow to pass over Jupiter's magnetosphere, it is likely that only the most energetic electrons would reach the Earth in this fashion.

The leading edge of the Jupiter Wind would effectively sweep across the earth (just as the Earth's shadow swept across the face of Jupiter), causing a negatively charged surge, which when in combination with the solar wind could cause a massive electromagnetic force against the Earth's geomagnetic field. In many respects, the Jupiter Wind could provide the trigger and “reversing mechanism” while the solar wind provides the power.

The potential for such a geomagnetic pole reversal event would thus be predictable by simply calculating those dates when the Sun-Earth-Jupiter alignment is sufficiently precise to cause the shadowing effect. However, the intensity of the solar wind, the orientation of the Sun's magnetic field, and the degree of sunspot activity might serve to add to or negate the Jupiter Wind effect. In this regard, at minimal sunspot activity and a relatively weak solar wind, the Sun's magnetic field is parallel to its axis of rotation. This results in the interplanetary magnetic field transferring greater amounts of energy into the Earth's magnetosphere [11]. Conversely, when the sunspot activity is at a peak, with a strong solar wind, the Sun's magnetic field is perpendicular to its axis of rotation [10]. There is also the possibility that the planet Saturn could conceivably accomplish a geomagnetic reversal as well, but because its magnetosphere is less than Jupiter, and because it is much further away, the chances of Sun-Earth-Saturn alignments causing a pole reversal is much less.

There is also evidence that sunspots are connected with the alignment of planets. For example, if one considers the larger sunspot cycle of 178 years and Jupiter's orbit about the Sun of 11.862 years, one obtains: 1/178 + 1/11.862 = 1/P where P = 11.121 (a value extremely close to the average solar activity of 11.125 years) [12]. Such a correlation lends credence to the concept that electromagnetism connects the solar system in a profound manner. If an alignment of the Earth with the Sun and other planets can cause a geomagnetic pole reversal, or an excursion, the connection is more than profound.

Effects of Electromagnetic Surges on the Earth

On the one hand, the Sun is known to “ring like a bell.” Furthermore, it changes its tune (or the acoustic frequency at which the sun oscillates), increasing slightly as the solar cycle goes from a minimum to a maximum – a change of about 1 part in 10,000. [14] There is also “a sharp drop in neutrino flux” as the solar cycle approaches its maximum. [15] This is mentioned in that one might have been missing some of their neutrino income during such times. From the technical scientific viewpoint, “Something does something to the neutrinos.” [15] Isn't science wonderful?

The effects of sunspot activity and solar wind conditions on the Earth and its inhabitants is considerable. Climate, for example, follows the sunspot cycle, such that “alternate sunspot peaks coincide with highs and lows in the temperature cycles. [16] Solar flares can cause compass readings to be wrong by as much as ten degrees, thus playing havoc with navigation. [17] “Fluctuations in the sun were once correlated with the taste of wine.” [18] In years when certain equatorial winds were blowing from the west, polar temperatures rise and fall with solar activity; but when these winds are from the east, the opposite effect is observed. [19]

Correlations also exist between peak sunspot activity and serious deterioration in electronic or electromagnetic power [20] and communication channels on Earth. Such solar activity affects weather and climate in significant ways, in some cases causing worldwide cooling [12]. As noted before, some researchers have noted correlations between sunspot activity and popular uprisings. Possibly first commented on “by the Estonian astronomer Ernst Opik in 1956, the years 1789, 1830, 1848, 1871, 1905, 1917, 1937, 1956, 1968, 1979, and 1989-90 are all notable both for their popular uprisings and maximum or near-maximum sunspot activity.” [13]

The gist of the argument by Estling [13] is that heavy sunspot activity leads to a decrease in the number of “negatively ionized gases in the Earth's atmosphere, and inasmuch as a heavy concentration of negative ions (atoms or groups of atoms with one or more extra electrons) provides an increased sense of wellbeing, it follows that a sharp rise in positively charged ions (especially hydrogen nuclei or protons) results in a decreased sense of well being and thus the occasion for yet another popular revolution!” One might note that the extremely heavy sunspot activity of 2000 led to the appointment of George Bush as president, and the instigation by various fundamentalists of a “popular revolution” which pointed the USA in the direction of a theocracy. Obviously, such a “popular revolution” is not necessarily a good thing!

The effects of massive solar fluctuations in the electromagnetic field can also influence life on Earth in other significant ways. For example, it is believed that extremely minute doses of magnetite in bacteria allow swimming bacteria to orient to the geomagnetic field. Similarly, homing pigeons, bees and termites are believed to use the same magnetite in conjunction with the geomagnetic field in the form of a navigational aid -- much as humans use compasses. Recently, researchers [21, 22] have found the mineral magnetite in human brain tissue, where it may represent part of a magnetic sensing system. The consistency of size, shape and distribution of the crystals has suggested that the magnetite has some biological function. In addition, such magnetite containing tissues may interact directly with weak magnetic fields.

Interactions of human or animal tissues with magnetic fields include the possible link of electrical distribution power lines with heightened cancer incidence and the onset of Alzheimer's disease [23]. In addition, there is increasing evidence that low intensity electromagnetic energy interactions might be fundamental to life processes, including the potential for therapeutic use [24]. Gregor Wieser [25] has conducted experiments with human subjects which suggest that changes in a magnetic field, rather than its mere presence, is the important factor; and that furthermore, weaker magnetic fields (such as the Earth's geomagnetic field) may be better at influencing the brain than stronger fields! The human immune system efficiency appears to particularly susceptible to fluctuating electromagnetic field (EMF) effects [26]. Obviously, a rapidly fluctuating geomagnetic field or a field reversal would have much greater effects on the human organism.

Effects of a geomagnetic pole reversal on the Earth as a whole is highly speculative, but could involve some dramatic effects. For example, any reversal of the geomagnetic field would influence the electrically conducting outer core of the Earth, particularly at the interface between the outer core and the Earth's mantle. This could result in a massive increase in volcanic activity. The fact that volcanic activity appears cyclical [12] may correlate with the cyclical nature of the planets, Sun and Moon – including their alignments. Volcanic activity is, in turn, intimately tied to weather and climate -- the massive flooding in the American Midwest during the spring and summer of 1993 was, according to some experts [27], directly caused by Mount Pinatubo 's eruption in 1991!

In addition to volcanic effects there is the possibility of a significant increase in the shifting of the continental plates, which would in turn, cause major increases in earthquake activity. While there is no evidence that the disturbances in the outer core-mantle interface would result in a geographical pole shift, the fact remains that such disturbances could act as a trigger for built up pressures in the continental plates. Major continental plate shifts of sufficient strength could then correspond to a geographical pole shift or something approaching such severity. This latter possibility is highly speculative, but not easily dismissed out of hand. It does, however, allow for the possibility that the Richter Scale may need some revisions upward.

From an energy viewpoint, an apparent geographical pole shift is possible by shifting the continental plates, while at the same time, the bulk of the Earth continue to rotate about the same axis. Thus the geographical pole's location with respect to the surface of the Earth and its relationship to the orientation of the continental plates has apparently been shifted, even while the bulk of the Earth continues to rotate essentially as before. In this fashion, major shifts of the continental plates with respect to the rotating bulk of the Earth have already been well documented by the events which occurred worldwide about the time of the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, approximately 3,500 years ago [28]. See, for example, Sun, Stand Thou Still.

Something to Look Forward To

The potential for a Sun-Earth-Jupiter near perfect alignment to cause a geomagnetic pole reversal may be significant. And in the event of a reversal, or even a relatively short-term excursion of the geomagnetic pole, the results would be considerably more than a disruption of communication links around the globe. The effects of such a pole shift could cause everything from major disruptions in the lives of human and animals (conceivably both positive and negative effects) to catastrophic earth changes. The latter might include extensive volcanic activity, massive earthquakes, and substantial movements of continental plates. The question thus arises: When is the next “window of opportunity” for such an event?

Geopalenotologists rather glibly talk of such reversals occurring every millions years or so. By their own data, however, such reversals have been occurring, on average, every 400,000 years, and the last such reversal was 730,000 years ago. Common logic would suggest that the earth is overdue for a geomagnetic pole reversal. There is also the fact that the odds of a comet hitting a planet are also very low, but then comet Shoemaker-Levy did exactly that to the planet Jupiter just a few years ago, suggesting that even against long odds of something happening in span of a century or so, hits happen!

In addition, one notes that peaks of sunspot activity have occurred in 1906, 1918, 1928, 1939, 1948, 1958, 1969 [12], 1979-1980, and 1989-1990. Simple arithmetic suggests that 2001-2002 is the next expected peak in the cycle, and sure enough the sunspot activity during this period of time was extraordinary in terms of intensity, numbers of sunspots, and similar effects (including Corona Mass Discharges). In addition, for the first time in centuries, the Earth, Sun and Jupiter formed a near-perfect alignment on December 31, 2001 (at approximately 10:30 PM MST !). Incredibly, the Earth, Sun and Saturn formed a near-perfect alignment on January 13, 2005 (approximately 3:55 PM MST ). It would have appeared that the Jupiter date was far more likely to effect the Earth, but the only major disaster was the continuation of the Bush presidency, the aftermath of 9/11/2001, Afghanistan, Iraq, and… Well, perhaps that's enough. Certainly there was a poll shift with massive catastrophic effects!

Astrologically Speaking

The next peak in sunspot activity is expected in 2012. That date alone is enough to cause some consternation, in that according to some sources the Mayan Calendar ends, and the world will never be quite the same. Meanwhile the Jupiter-Sun oppositions are continuing on an approximate 13 month basis to rotate around the Zodiac. Then on December 2, 2012 , the opposition occurs with the Sun in Sagittarius and Jupiter in Gemini. The respective declinations are within one degree of being in exact opposition. The curious part is that the planets, Pluto, Mars, and Venus form with Jupiter something called the “Finger of Destiny” with Jupiter as the focal point. Astrologically, Jupiter is the ‘Santa Claus' of the Zodiac and tends to bring good things. Interestingly, enough, this includes death and the release from the trials and tribulations of earthly existence. Thus this special emphasis on Jupiter can mean release for some and/or an evolutionary ascension for others.

This might suggest that December 2012 is a candidate for a magnetic pole shift of the evolutionary kind. Prophecies of the past concerning 2012 might very well have validity, and when combined with the science of today – its growing understanding of the electromagnetic nature of our Solar System – one tends to suspect that we will soon be living the ancient Chinese curse: “May you live in interesting times.” But the so-called ‘curse', like the Chinese symbol which represents both chaos and opportunity, may prove to be a curse for some and virgin fields of opportunity for others.

What can we in fact expect if a magnetic pole shift (or excursion) occurs? Well in the case of December 2012, consider the astrological interpretations of this particular cosmic event.

Dane Rudhyar, until his death considered by most astrologers to be the dean of astrology, had interpreted a series known as Sabian Symbols, and these interpretations have become a mainstay of astrological interpretation. If we apply the appropriate symbols for the Sun-Jupiter opposition, we obtain two symbols (and their interpretation).

For the Sun, the symbol is: “A Flag Turns into an Eagle; The Eagle into a Chanticleer saluting the Dawn.” That should get your immediate attention. But there's even more. Rudhyar's interpretation [29] of the Sun's symbol is: “The spiritualization and promotion of great symbols of a New Age by minds sensitive to its precursory manifestations.” He goes on to say that “the eagle symbolizes spiritual will and the power to rise to the highest possible altitude of consciousness and purpose.” “It speaks of ‘peak experiences' instead of the wisdom found in the organismic depth of the body-consciousness. It urges us to bring our noblest ideals to actual life through the power of the spiritual will.”

That view, perhaps, we can handle. Considering the fact that the Eagle has always been a symbol of lofty aims – along with its ability to first sense the rising sun – such a new dawn might be okay. We can, then, with slightly less trepidation, consider the flip side of the opposition.

Rudhyar's interpretation [29] for the Sabian Symbol for Jupiter during this opposition is: “Liberation from the ghosts of the past.” People discovering new or virgin lands are often carrying such baggage as to inhibit the manifestation of anything resembling a new world. “The Puritans brought to the theoretically ‘New World' the fears, the fanaticism and the aggressiveness of their European existence, and these often grew more virulent under the conditions found in the New World. But no field of activity is every totally ‘virgin'. It has its inhabitants, and they cling to their possessions or privileges. Whoever seeks to be truly an individual must be liberated from the past . The new lands are opened, but they are filled with lives, and the pioneer's mind filled with ghosts, preconceptions, and prejudices or expectations. What is needed is a total LIQUIDATION of the past: virgin minds for virgin fields.” [emphasis added]

One can then make their own personal interpretation of what “Liquidation” might entail. The end of the Infernal Revenue Service? Yea! The end of sliced bread? Maybe (depends of your personal view of carbohydrates and diet). The end of chocolate covered strawberries? Horrors!

Just remember to keep in mind the modern adage, “An optimist is someone who thinks that this is the best of all possible worlds. A pessimist is someone who fears that this is true.” Either way, it's the same world – it's just a matter of perspective. It's your choice on how you choose to look at it.



[1] Kenneth Hoffman, “Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo”, Scientific American , pages 76-83, May, 1988.

[2] Jeremy Bloxham and David Gubbins, “The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field”, Scientific American , pages 68-75, December, 1989.

[3] Rober Lewin, Roger, “Earth's Field Flips Flipping Fast”, Science , page 26, January 25, 1992 .

[4] Mike Fuller, “Fast Changes in Geomagnetism”, Nature , vol 339, pages 582-3, June 22, 1989 .

[5] Andy Jackson, “Still Poles Apart on Reversals”, Nature , vol 358, pages 194-5, July 16, 1992 .

[6] Richard Monastersky, “The Flap Over Magnetic Flips”, Science News , vol 143, pages 378-380, June 12, 1993 .

[7] Richard Monastersky, “Earth as Egg: Hard-Boiled or Raw?” Science News , vol 139, page 319, May 20, 1989 .

[8] Richard Monastersky, “Earth Burps and Magnetic Flips”, Science News , vol 141, page 14, 1991.

[9] Fran Bagenal, “Giant Planet Magnetospheres”, Annual Review of Earth Planetary Sciences , vol 20, pages 289-328, 1992.

[10] Sue Bowler, “A Simple Model for Planets' Magnetic Fields?” New Scientist , vol 126, page 32, June 16, 1990 .

[11] Alan Rodger and John Dudeney, “Merging at the Magneto- pause”, Nature , vol 36, page 407, February 4, 1993 .

[12] Iben Browning and Evelyn M. Garriss, Past and Future History , Fraser Publishing Company, Burlington , Vermont , 1981.

[13] Ralph Estling, “Brought Down by the Sun”, New Scientist , vol 129, page 54, January 5, 1991 .

[14] “Ringing to the beat of the solar cycle”, Science News , vol 138, page 7, July 7, 1990 .

[15] “The COBE universe: Portrait at 300,000,” Science News , vol 137, April 21, 1990 .

[16] Science, New Scientist , page 27, August 19, 1989 .

[17] “Solar flares send navigators off in the wrong direction,” New Scientist , page 15, June 22, 1991 .

[18] Paul Hoffman, “On the Spot,” Discover , page 4, November, 1989.

[19] Discover , page 48, November 1989.

[20] Electrical World , page 63, March 1992.

[21] Marcia Barinaga, “Giving Personal Magnetism a Whole New Meaning”, Science , vol 256, page 967, May 15, 1992 .

[22] Charlene Crabb, “Magnetic Minds”, Discover , vol 14, page 70-71, January, 1993.

[23] E. Stanton Maxey, M.D., “Reducing Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields”, Frontier Perspectives , vol 3, pages 4-5, Fall 1992.

[24] Jan Walleczek, “The Immune System and ELF Electromagnetic Fields”, Frontier Perspectives , vol 3, pages 7-10, Fall 1992.

[25] Gregor Wieser, “An Exciting Field to Work In”, The Economist , vol 328, page 80, July 3, 1993 .

[26] James B. Beal, “Electromagnetic Fields: How Dangerous?” Frontier Perspectives , vol 3, pages 22-25. Fall, 1992.

[27] John Liscio, “Pinatubo and the Prairie; A Pacific Volcano Slams the Corn Belt ”, Barron's , pages 8-21, August 23, 1993 .

[28] Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision , Macmillan , NY , 1950.

[29] Dane Rudhyar, An Astrological Mandala: The Cycle of Transformations and Its 360 Symbolic Phases , Vintage Books / Random House, New York , 1974.


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