Romulus (and Remus)
New - 20 March 2010
Generations 86 - 91
Romulus (and Remus)
Generation No. 86
1. Romulus  Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares) Numitor  Procas  Aventinus  Romulus Silvius  Agrippa  Tibernius Silvius  Capetus  Capys  Atys  Alba  Latinus Silvius  Aeneas Silvius  Silvius (I)  Aeneas (=Lavinia)  Anchises (=Inanna)  Capys (=Themiste)  Assaracus (=Aigesta)  Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris)  Erichthonius (=Astyoche)  Dardanus (=Batea)  ---- Enki (=Electra)  Anu and Antu  Anshar and Kishar  Lahmu and Lahamu  Tiamat and Absu 
2. Remus [ibid]
Romulus and Remus' grandfather, Numitor and his brother Amulius, descendants of certain royal fugitives from Troy, jointly received the throne of Alba Longa upon their father's death. Numitor received the sovereign powers as his birthright, while Amulius received the royal treasury, including the gold Aeneas had brought with him from Troy. While this might have seemed fair, it was anything but.
Because Amulius held the treasury, he accordingly had more power than his brother: a king’s commands being inevitably trumped by said king’s ability to finance whatever he is trying to command. Because of this Amulius quickly dethroned his brother as the rightful king. Once Numitor was out of power, Amulius turned his attention to Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, who, obviously, would be able to produce children who one day might overthrow Amulius in turn. (In royal circles this is something of a family tradition). Amulius accordingly forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, a priestess sworn to abstinence and chastity. What Amulius had failed to anticipate, however, was that Mars, the god of war, (in Greek, Ares) had become smitten by Numitor’s daughter... an event reminiscent of “The sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair...” [Genesis 6:2]. In this later case, Mars is said to have seduced Rhea in the woods while she was searching for fresh water.
King Amulius rather quickly noticed that Rhea was with child (or childs) and he took the next logical step of having her imprisoned in a tower until she gave birth... giving a whole new meaning a woman’s “confinement”. There is, of course, absolutely no truth whatsoever to the story that while waiting for her big moment in the tower, that she ended up letting her hair grow really, really long. Instead, she simply in due course gave birth to twin boys, who happened to be of remarkable size and beauty... thus suggesting a father with war and god credentials, not to mention experience in same (i.e., someone you wouldn’t want to cross). Rhea’s twins were named Romulus and Remus (aka R&R). Amulius was, naturally, enraged, and not to be thwarted by such a blatant lack of chastity, he ordered Rhea and the twins killed. It was one thing to have fooled Father Kingdom (as opposed to Mother Nature), but there was also the problem of R&R being two potential heirs and claimants to Amulius' throne.
Accounts vary on how Amulius carried out his nefarious plan. One version holds that he had Rhea buried alive (the standard punishment for Vestal Virgins who had violated their vow of celibacy -- even for a first violation). He then ordered the death of the twins by exposure. From a Greek point of view (said qualities that Romans tended to emulate), the exposure bit was pretty standard procedure and societally acceptable. Slight flaws in a newborn... like mental or physical infirmities, or having a bit too much royal blood, for examples... were typically resolved by the simple expedience of leaving the infant(s) in the out-of-doors, to be ravaged by the wolves. The assumption, of course, was that the wolves would eventually kill and eat the infants... as opposed to providing high-content milk for the infant(s) nourishment. The idea that a woodpecker would also assist by changing diapers and the like was even less envisioned.
In another somewhat more popular version (i.e., it really lends itself to the big screen), Amulius ordered Rhea and the twins thrown into the River Tiber, with the clear intent that they would drown... none of the aforementioned having swimming lessons under their belt. However, the best laid plans by mice and kings oft times go astray. In this case, the servant ordered to kill the twins could not do so, supposedly because they were too beautiful and innocent... a category in which, apparently, Rhea had failed to qualify for... or else she was still up to her neck in... well... dirt. The servant instead proceeded to place the two in a trough (or basket) and laid the baby-laden trough on the banks of the Tiber and thereafter trusted to luck... or the River God. The river, which was in flood stage, rose and gently carried the basket and the twins downstream. While not exactly constituting the standard means for ensuring the drowning of infants -- unless they were really into the habit of rocking the boat -- the servant had in fact met the letter of the law in throwing the kids into the river... but in the tradition of legal loopholes, the kids had been "thrown into" something that floated on the river. The trough proceeded to float down the river -- supposedly kept safe by the river deity Tiberinus (who, like his mother, never liked Amulius) -- until it came to rest at the site of the future Rome, near a Ficus ruminalis, a sacred fig tree in such historical times. There a she-wolf and a woodpecker suckled and fed them.
It should be noted that the she-wolf (Lupa in Latin) has been known to refer to a priestess of the fox goddess, thus implying that the “she-wolf” might have been a human. There is even speculation that the nurturers were harlots (she-wolf being a name in ancient Rome for said ladies of the night). In any case, the R&R twins were nurtured underneath a fig tree and were fed by a woodpecker named Picus. [It’s not generally speculated as to what manner the woodpecker might have aided the harlot.] Both animals, by the way, were sacred to Mars... who even as an absentee godfather [sic] might nevertheless have felt some responsibilities for the after... birth. In addition, it would appear that Mars had also been playing catch-up with Athena, who had begun the one-up-man-ship years before at Troy by adopting owls as her sacred bird. [Similarly, Odin later went into Valkyries, while Enki was, of course, always big on serpents. Dionysus tended toward young human females in heat.]
Romulus and Remus were then discovered by Faustulus, a shepherd for Amulius, who brought the children to his home. Faustulus and his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the boys as their own. The roots of her name, by the way, suggest the religious cult of an earth mother, which might imply that it was a prostitute 'she-wolf', and shockingly, an earth mother advocate, who suckled Rome's patriarchal founders. Accordingly, no more will be said about that particular scandal.
In another version Hercules married Acca Larentia off to the shepherd Faustulus, who saved the lives of the twins Romulus and Remus after they had been thrown into the Tiber. As it turned out, Acca Larentia had twelve sons, and on the death of one of them, Romulus took his place. He and the remaining eleven founded the college of the Arval brothers Fratres Arvales. Acca Larentia is therefore identified with the Dea Dia of that collegium. The flamen Quirinalis acted in the role of Romulus (deified as Quirinus) to perform funerary rites for his foster mother (as the goddess). [Be sure to check out “flamen”. Intriguing!]
The Arval brothers subsequently came into direct conflict with Amulius... 1) with regard to grazing rights (aka the fleecing of the non-royal sheep), 2) in the traditional animosity between teenagers and authority figures, and/or 3) simply because Romulus and Remus were eager to reclaim the throne on behalf of their royal lineage. The end result was pretty typical, with Amulius being defeated by rather precisely the sons who he had gone to such great lengths to eliminate as potential rivals. We often reap what we resist.
With Amulius eliminated, the city-kingdom -- having failed utterly to learn from the history of Amulius and Numitor -- offered Romulus and Remus the joint crown. However, the twins -- who were already somewhat politically savvy -- refused to be the kings so long as their grandfather was still alive. This would also give them more time to plan their eventual war of succession over their brother. At the same time, though, they both decided that they would not live in the city-kingdom as subjects of the crown (even when worn by their grandfather). Consequently, after restoring the kingship to Numitor and properly honoring their mother Rhea Silvia [in what was almost certainly various goddess-inspired rites, and with all due deference to their foster mother, Acca Larentia] the two left Alba Longa to found their own city upon the slopes of the Palatine Hill. Before they left Alba Longa, however, they took with them fugitives, runaway slaves, and all others who wanted a second chance at life... including any temporarily lost followers of Moses, who were still looking for the land of milk and honey.
Once Romulus and Remus arrived at the Palatine Hill, the two argued over where the exact position of the city should be. Romulus was set on building the city upon the Palatine, but Remus wanted to build the city on the strategic and easily fortified Aventine Hill. They agreed to settle their argument by testing their abilities as augurs and, more importantly, leaving it up to the will of the deities. Each took a seat on the ground apart from one another. In due course, Remus saw six vultures, the birds being considered sacred to Mars, their father -- i.e., someone has to clean up the god of war’s mess after a good, knock-down-drag-out conflict. Romulus then saw twelve vultures. [Mars had considered sending seven lean and seven well-fed cows, but Apollo and Hermes were still arguing over the herd that Hermes had allegedly stolen from Apollo. Also, as it turns out, hippos were out of season.]
Remus was enraged by Romulus’s apparent victory [there’s a lot of poor losers in history]. He claimed that since he had seen his six vultures first, he should have won. Romulus’ lawyers rejected this claim out of hand and vowed to go to court... just as soon as Romulus created a legal justice/injustice system. In the interim, on April 21, 753 BC [*], Romulus began digging a trench (or building a wall, according to Dionysius), and thereby establishing where his city's boundary were to run. Remus ridiculed some parts of this work, and obstructed others. Then Remus leapt across the trench, an omen of bad luck, since this implied that the city fortifications would be easily breached. In response, Remus was killed. [Anyone stepping across the proverbial line in the sand, very likely deserves nothing less than a shovel upside the head.]
There are, as it turns out, four different accounts of ways Remus died... thereby demonstrating the ancient tradition of witnesses being unable to agree to critical factors... if only because witnesses tend to be rank amateurs, instead of professional or expert witnesses. A majority, however, agree that Remus’ brother Romulus killed him: "Remus, in derision of his brother, leaped over the new wall, and Romulus, enraged thereat, slew him, uttering at the same time this imprecation: 'So perish every one that shall hereafter leap over my wall'". An alternative version simply states, in a passive voice, that Remus was dead, without noting either that he was murdered, or by whom; he simply "became dead". Two other lesser known minority opinions state that either Remus was killed by Romulus' commander Fabius with a shovel, or that Celer, whose relation to Romulus is uncertain, killed Remus by striking him across the head with his spade.
Once the Spade Wars subsided, Romulus buried Remus before continuing to build his city. He named the city Roma after himself, and served as its first king. After the completion of the city, Romulus divided the people of Rome who were able to fight into regiments of 3000 infantry and 300 cavalry. Romulus called these regiments "legions". From the populace, Romulus hand selected 100 of the most noble men to serve as a council for the city... i.e., those who weren’t able or inclined to fight, but who could order others to do so. Romulus called these noble men Patricians, not only because they were the fathers of legitimate sons (thus making them comparatively... legitimately... elite), but also because he intended the great and the wealthy to treat the weak and the poor as fathers treat their sons. The specifics of how this logic might actually work was not clear, but the plan delineated, if only symbolically, the inauguration of the patron-client relationship, known as clientela. I.e., it’s essential for someone seeking justice or any rights whatsoever to have a patron -- preferably one who is not patronizing -- in order to prosper in society. This clientela relationship was central to Roman culture and society, and was later passed down to medieval, sometimes feudal societies, where objections to such arrangements was more often than not... futile. The council of the Patricians was called the Roman Senate.
Romulus spread the reputation of Rome as an asylum to all who desired a new life. [Sadly, there was no France at the time capable of sending a statuesque beacon for the local harbor. There was also the substantial competition posed by the Pharos of Alexandria, Egypt.] Nevertheless, Rome was able to attract a population of exiles, refugees, murderers, criminals, runaway slaves, and of course... Republicans. [Ah yes: the American dream!] Rome's population increased exponentially -- i.e., there were at the time (as well as now) a hoarde of murderers, criminals and Republicans running about doing their thing and looking for new avenues to fleece. Thus, the city was able to settle five of the seven hills of Rome: the Capitoline Hill, the Aventine Hill, the Caelian Hill, the Quirinal Hill, and the Palatine Hill. Romulus, however, saw a problem quickly forming before him (besides the presence of all those friggin’ Republicans): few of the foreigners had wives. (People on the run often miss out on the benefits of family life.) Romulus decided he needed to fill his city with women as well.
To do so, Romulus held a festival, the Consualia, and invited the neighboring Sabine tribe to attend as his guests. The Sabines came en masse, and (foolishly) brought with them their daughters... “that were fair.” Romulus’ plan was to kidnap the Sabine women and bring them back to Rome as citizens... and/or suffragettes. When the Sabines arrived, Romulus sat amongst the senators, clad in purple, and ready to signal the daughter-nappings by his rising and folding his cloak, and then throwing it round him again. Armed with swords, many of his followers kept their eyes intently upon him, and when the signal was given, his nobles drew their swords, rushed in with shouts, and captured the daughters of the Sabines. As part of the grand plan, they permitted and encouraged the men to escape unharmed. In all, some 700 Sabine women were captured and brought back to Rome. This event is remembered in various works of art titled "Rape of the Sabine Women".
The Sabines, although a numerous and war-like people, found themselves somewhat between the rock and the hard place (i.e., a steel sword). Bound by precious hostages and fearing for their daughters, they sent ambassadors with reasonable and moderate demands that Romulus should give back their maidens, disavow his deed of violence, and then, by persuasion and legal enactment, establish a friendly relationship between the two peoples. Romulus would not surrender the maidens [possibly in large part due to the fact that many if not all of said maidens were no longer... strictly speaking... maidens]. Instead, he demanded that the Sabines allow their marriage with the Romans. Whereupon both parties held long deliberations and made extensive preparations for war. [Fortunately, they were totally unaware of the prescription that it is impossible to prepare simultaneously for peace and war.]
While most of the Sabines were still busy with their preparations, the people of a few cities banded together against the Romans, and in a battle which ensued, they were defeated, and surrendered to Romulus their cities, their territory to be divided, and themselves to be transported to Rome. According to Wikipedia, “Romulus distributed among the citizens all the territory thus acquired, excepting that which belonged to the parents of the ravished maidens; this he suffered its owners to keep for themselves.”
This enraged the Sabines [the ravishing, as opposed to the oxymoron], and in response appointed Titus Tatius as the supreme commander-in-chief of all the Sabines, who then marched his army on Rome. The city was difficult to access, having as its fortress the Capitoline Hill, on which a guard had been stationed, with a man named Tarpeius as its captain. But supposedly, Tarpeia, a daughter of the commander, betrayed the citadel to the Sabines, having set her heart on the golden armlets that she saw them wearing, and she asked as payment for her treachery that which they wore on their left arms. Tatius agreed to this, whereupon she opened one of the gates by night and let the Sabines in. Once inside, Tatius ordered his Sabines, mindful of their agreement, to not begrudge her anything they wore on their left arms. Tatius was first to take from his arm not only his armlet, but at the same time his shield, and cast them upon her. All his men followed his example, and she was smitten by the gold and buried under the shields, and died from the number and weight of them.
With the Sabines controlling the Capitoline Hill, Romulus angrily challenged them to open battle, and Tatius boldly accepted. The Sabines marched down the Capitoline and battled the Romans between the hills in a swampy area which would one day become the Roman Forum. (The war itself could be viewed as the pre-quel of later Roman games.) The Sabines overran the Romans and the Romans were forced back behind the very walls of Rome upon the Palatine Hill. From behind the walls, the Romans began to flee the battle. Romulus bowed down and prayed to Jupiter (hoping Enki had a sense of humor... if not irony). The Romans promptly rallied back to Romulus and made a stand. Later, on the very spot where Romulus prayed, a temple to Jupiter Stator ("the stayer") was built. Romulus led the Romans on and they drove the Sabines back to the point where the Temple of Vesta would one day stand.
Then, just as the Romans and Sabines were preparing to renew the battle, they were abruptly stopped by the sight of the ravished daughters of the Sabines rushing from the city of Rome through the infantry and the dead bodies. The Sabine women ran up to their husbands and their fathers, some carrying young children in their arms... and thereby explaining the use of the “ravished” adjective. Both armies were so moved to compassion (i.e., from the male perspective, the prospect of some very unhappy women). The armies drew apart to give the women some space between the battle lines. The Sabine women begged their Roman husbands and their Sabine fathers and brothers to accept one another and live as one nation. With sorrow running through the ranks, a truce was made and the leaders held a conference. It was decided that both Romulus and Tatius would rule as joint kings of the Romans, including the newly added Sabines.
This resulted in Rome doubling its size. With the Romans inhabiting the Palatine Hill and the Sabines inhabiting the Quirinal Hill, the two nations chose a third hill to serve as the center of government and administration for the city of Rome, the Capitoline Hill. From the new Sabine citizens, 100 new noble men were selected to become Patricians and join the ranks of the Senate. The legions were doubled in size, from 3000 infantry and 300 cavalry to 6000 infantry and 600 cavalry. The cultures of the Romans and Sabine were also combined in the union. The Sabines adopted the Roman calendar, and the Romans adopted the armor and oblong shield of the Sabines.
After five years of joint rule, Tatius was assassinated by foreign ambassadors and Romulus became the sole king of the Romans. Despite the obvious benefit to Romulus of foreign powers intervening to kill off the only limit to his power, Romulus appeared to have avoided any stigma or suspicion of an inside job in Tatius' murder. Then, in a bit of irony, Romulus introduced legislation... after the fact... against adultery and murder... and/or adultery which led to murder. As the now solitary king of Rome, Romulus became not only the commander-in-chief of the army, but also the city’s chief judicial authority. Reportedly, his judgments of many crimes were held in place for over six hundred years, and without a single case being reported in Rome of his judgments being questioned. This is called dictatorial, media control!
Under Romulus' sole administration, the people of Rome were divided into three tribes: one for Latins (Ramnes), a second for Sabines (Titites), and a third for Etruscans (Luceres). The Ramnes derived their name from Romulus, the Tities derived their name from Titus Tatius, and the Luceres derived their name from an Etruscan title of honor. Together these three tribes constituted the Romans. Each of the tribes had a tribune who represented their respective tribes in all civil, religious, and military affairs. When in the city, they were the magistrates of their tribes, and performed sacrifices on their behalf, and in times of war they were Rome's military commanders.
Romulus, being a martial man, formed his own personal guard, called the Celeres. (Suffice it to say that Romulus knew how assassinations might be instituted.) The Celeres consisted of Rome's three hundred finest horsemen who were under the command of the Celerum Tribune, who was also the Tribune for the Ramnes tribe. The Celeres derived their name from their leader, a close friend of Romulus named Celers who [in one version] helped him slay Remus and found the city of Rome. This special military unit functioned very much like the Praetorian Guard of Augustus as it was responsible for Romulus' personal safety and for the security of Rome while the legions were on her borders. The relationship between Romulus and his Tribune also is similar to the relation between the Roman Dictator and his Magister Equitum. Celer, as the Celerum Tribune, occupied the second place in the state, and in Romulus' absence he had the rights of convoking the Comitia and commanding the armies. [Rather like a US Vice President deciding to go to war when his boss is away.]
From the founding of Rome until his death, Romulus waged wars and expanded his territory... i.e., Rome's territory... for over two decades. He conquered many of the neighboring Etruscan cities, and gained unequaled control over the area of Latium, Tuscany, Umbria, and Abruzzo. After his final wars against the Etruscans, the king of Alba Longa, Numitor, Romulus’ biological grandfather, died. The people of Alba Longa freely offered the crown to Romulus, believing he was the one rightful ruler of the city as the blood heir to Numitor. Romulus accepted dominion over the city, but gained much favor with the city’s populace by placing the government in the hands of the people within the city. Once a year, Romulus appointed a governor over the city, a man selected by the people of Alba Longa.
During later years, Romulus grew to rely less and less upon the Senate. Though this was entirely legal, it went against tradition. The Senate essentially had lost its influence, holding no say in the administration of the city. The Senate could only be convened when Romulus called for it, and once assembled, the Senators merely sat in silence and listened to his edicts. The Senators soon found that their only advantage over the commoners was that they learned what Romulus decreed sooner than the commoners did. On his own authority, he divided the territory acquired in war among his soldiers, and without the consent or wish of the Patricians... who began to suspect that he was insulting their Senate outright. Although the Senators grew to hate him, they feared him (and the Celeres) too much to defy him openly and show him their displeasure.
One story goes that Romulus's life ended in the thirty-eighth year of his reign, with a supernatural disappearance... in other words, he was not slain by the Senate. In this version, when Romulus and all the people had gone to the Campus Martius on the fateful day, a sudden storm arose. The darkness became so great that the people fled in terror. When the storm was over, the Romans returned. To their surprise, however, Romulus had disappeared. The people searched for him, but none could find him. The people were amazed, and were all talking about his sudden disappearance, and wondering what could have become of their king, when one of the Senators stood up and called for silence.
After the Senator calmed the mass of people, he told the assembled Romans that he had seen Romulus being carried up into the heavens. Romulus, the Senator said, had called out that he was going to live with the deities, and wished his people to worship him as the god Quirinus. In response, the Romans built a temple on the hill where the Senator said that Romulus had risen to heaven. This hill was called the Quirinal Hill in Romulus' honor, and for many years the Romans worshiped Romulus, the founder of their city, and their first king from that very spot.
As the god Quirinus, Romulus joined Jupiter and Mars in the Archaic Triad. Quirinus was Rome’s god of war, their strength, and the deified likeness of the city of Rome itself.
3. Hersilia  ...unknown
Hersilia - Hersilia was the wife of Romulus. The principal source for her is Livy:
Just like her husband (who became the god Quirinus), she was deified after her death as Hora.
Kings of Rome
1. Numa Pompilius  Romulus (=Hersilia)  Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares) Numitor  Procas  Aventinus  Romulus Silvius  Agrippa  Tibernius Silvius  Capetus  Capys  Atys  Alba  Latinus Silvius  Aeneas Silvius  Silvius (I)  Aeneas (=Lavinia)  Anchises (=Inanna)  Capys (=Themiste)  Assaracus (=Aigesta)  Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris)  Erichthonius (=Astyoche)  Dardanus (=Batea)  ---- Enki (=Electra)  Anu and Antu  Anshar and Kishar  Lahmu and Lahamu  Tiamat and Absu 
Or by another reckoning, in a far less detailed manner (and which we will discount somewhat):
1. Numa Pompilius  Pomponius  ...Sabines ...Lacedaemonians (Sparta) ...Enki (=Taygete)  Anu and Antu  Anshar and Kishar  Lahmu and Lahamu  Tiamat and Absu 
Numa Pompilius (753-673 BC; king of Rome, 717-673 BC) was the second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.
However, a question that arises is whether or not Pompilia was Numa’s daughter. In one Wikipedia web page, for example, “Plutarch claims that Numa was the youngest of Pomponius' four sons, born on the day of Rome's founding (traditionally, 21 April 753 BC),” and that furthermore, “Plutarch reports that some authors credited him with only a single daughter, Pompilia...”
However, another Wikipedia web page reports that Livy described Ancus Marcius, the fourth King of Rome [See below, Generation No. 89], as “the son of Marcius and Pompilia and, through his mother, grandson of Rome's Romulus.” [emphasis added]
These two web pages are not necessarily a contradiction (albeit pretty darn close!), in that Ancus Marcius’ mother Pompilia would have of necessity also required a mother (in addition to Numa as a father)... who could easily have been Romulus’ daughter... albeit, this would make Ancus the great grandson of Romulus... and who’s to argue about yet another Roman claiming to be “great”? In any case, we will assume Livy’s case to be more accurate, if not needing a slight modification. Accordingly, we will assume herein that Ancus is in Romulus’ bloodline, even with the possibility of Pompilia being the daughter of Romulus... and Hersilia.
Now that we have that settled, we can return to the fact that in 717 BC, after the death of Romulus, Numa was elected by the Roman Senate to be the next king. This might well have been due to a blood connection with Romulus, or as Plutarch might assume, a throwback to the Sabines in that Plutarch assumed that "Numa was descended of the Sabines, who declare themselves to be a colony of the Lacedaemonians."
Numa was later celebrated for his natural wisdom and piety; legend says the nymph Egeria taught him to be a wise legislator. According to Livy, Numa pretended that he held nightly consultations with the goddess Egeria on the proper manner of instituting sacred rites for the city. Numa also brought the Vestal Virgins to Rome from Alba Longa. There is also the possibility that such pious behavior was somewhat pompous... the clue being that Numa’s father's middle name was Pomponius.
Plutarch claims the early religion of the Romans was imageless and spiritual. He says Numa:
One might ask where Numa got that idea? If it was Egeria, we’re talking about basically a pagan goddess of springs, sacred groves, and other notoriously natural ingredients. There is also, obviously, the hint of other religions that are unalterably opposed to graven images.
Numa Pompilius died in 673 BC of old age. He was succeeded by Tullus Hostilius.
2. Hostus Hostillius  ... unknown
Hostus Hostilius was a nobleman of Ancient Rome during the reign of king Romulus. He fought and died during the Sabine invasion of Rome following the Rape of the Sabine Women. [At least, his last memories were good ones.] His grandson, Tullus Hostilius, was the third king of Rome. His lineage is otherwise unknown. On the other hand, his name might be construed to give some hint of his nature, nativity, and natural abilities. He is mentioned here, in large part, as a space saver for a brief respite from the Numa lineage... and because his name is so cool!
Generation No. 88
1. Pompilia  Numa Pompilius (=Tatia)... or direct from Romulus (=Hersilia)  Romulus (=Hersilia)  Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares) Numitor  Procas  Aventinus  Romulus Silvius  Agrippa  Tibernius Silvius  Capetus  Capys  Atys  Alba  Latinus Silvius  Aeneas Silvius  Silvius (I)  Aeneas (=Lavinia)  Anchises (=Inanna)  Capys (=Themiste)  Assaracus (=Aigesta)  Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris)  Erichthonius (=Astyoche)  Dardanus (=Batea)  ---- Enki (=Electra)  Anu and Antu  Anshar and Kishar  Lahmu and Lahamu  Tiamat and Absu 
Pompilia, whose mother is variously identified as Numa's first wife Tatia, his second wife, Lucretia, Romulus' wife Hersilia, or an unknown woman, married a certain Marcius (of whom we know even less) and by him gave birth to the future king, Ancus Marcius. Him we know... a little bit.
2. Tullus Hostillius  ... Hostus Hostillius  ...unknown
Tullus Hostilius (r. 673 BC – 641 BC) was the third of the Kings of Rome. He succeeded Numa Pompilius, and was in turn succeeded by Ancus Marcius. Unlike his predecessor, Tullus was known as a warlike king. He was the grandson of Hostus Hostilius who had fought and died with Romulus during the Sabine invasion of Rome. As for being a warlike, hostile, king... is it any wonder? As has been said many times before, blood will tell.
The principal feature of Tullus' reign was his defeat of Alba Longa. After besting Alba Longa in war (by the victory of three Roman champions over three Albans) Alba Longa became Rome's vassal state. However, after the Alban dictator subsequently betrayed Rome, Tullus ordered Alba Longa to be destroyed, and forced the migration of the Alban citizenry to Rome where they were integrated and became Roman citizens. Tullus also fought successful wars against Fidenae and Veii and against the Sabines.
In possible response to Numa’s piety and preoccupation with religion, Tullus paid little heed to religious observances during his reign, thinking them unworthy of a king's attention... or the natural separation of church and state. However, at the close of his reign, Rome was affected by a series of bad omens, including: 1) a shower of stones on Alban Mount (in response to which a public religious festival of nine days was held - a novendialis), 2) a loud voice was heard on the summit of the mount complaining about the Albans failed devotion to their former gods, and 3) a pestilence happening in Rome. King Tullus became ill, and promptly got religion... and/or superstition. He fell back on the commentaries of Numa Pompilius and attempted to carry out sacrifices recommended by Numa to Jupiter Elicius (the weather and storm aspect of Jupiter). However Tullus did not undertake the ceremony correctly, and both he and his house were struck by lightning and reduced to ashes as a result of the anger of Jupiter. [What’s in a ritual and its exact conformity? Apparently, a bit more than one might have thought.]
3. Demaratus the Corinthian  ...unknown
Demaratus the Corinthian was a Corinthian nobleman of the House of Bacchis who arrived in Italy from Greece as a refugee in 655 B.C. Demaratus settled in the Etruscan city of Tarquinii.
Aruns died before his father, Demaratus, and left a pregnant wife. Demaratus not knowing he had a future grandchild left nothing for him in his inheritance. The grandchild subsequently became known as Egerius ("The Needy One"), on account of the poverty instilled by his non-inheritance. Egerius was the father to Tarquinius Collatinus, the husband to Lucretia. Egerius is also the first cousin of Tarquinia.
When Demaratus migrated to Western mainland Italy, he brought all of his wealth and with it, introduced Greek culture and Greek pottery. This may have included bringing potters with him from Corinth. These potters were thus responsible for the development of Greek pottery in Western mainland Italy... primarily in Tarquinii and in the Greek trading post of Gravisca.
An alternative version of his Family Tree is shown by The Ancient Library.
Generation No. 89
1. Ancus Marcius  Pompilia (=Marcius)  Numa Pompilius (=Tatia)... or direct from Romulus (=Hersilia)  Romulus (=Hersilia)  Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares) Numitor  Procas  Aventinus  Romulus Silvius  Agrippa  Tibernius Silvius  Capetus  Capys  Atys  Alba  Latinus Silvius  Aeneas Silvius  Silvius (I)  Aeneas (=Lavinia)  Anchises (=Inanna)  Capys (=Themiste)  Assaracus (=Aigesta)  Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris)  Erichthonius (=Astyoche)  Dardanus (=Batea)  ---- Enki (=Electra)  Anu and Antu  Anshar and Kishar  Lahmu and Lahamu  Tiamat and Absu 
Ancus Marcius (c. 640 BC – 616 BC) was the fourth of the Kings of Rome. Accordingly to Livy, he was the son of Marcius and Pompilia and, through his mother, he was the great grandson of Rome's Romulus.
His first act as king was to order the pontifex maximus to copy the text concerning the performance of public ceremonies of religion from the commentaries of Numa Pompilius to be displayed to the public, so that the rites of religion should no longer be neglected or improperly performed. [Obviously, Ancus had learned something from Tullus’ example: it’s not nice to fool around with the gods and goddesses and their rites. Or is it just the priests? Probably the latter.]
He incorporated into the city an area known as the Janiculum, in essence an ancient town founded by the god Janus (the two-faced god of beginnings), fortifying it with a wall and connecting it with the city by a wooden bridge across the Tiber, the Pons Sublicius. On the land side of the city he constructed the Fossa Quiritium, a ditch fortification. He also built Rome's first prison, the Mamertine prison... which later achieved its own form of recognition by providing for the incarceration of Saints Peter and Paul... the latter which is actually celebrated, so to speak, with an altar. Sigh.
Ancus waged war successfully against the Latins, and a number of them were settled on the Aventine Hill. He extended Roman territory to the sea, founding the port of Ostia, establishing salt-works around the port, and taking the Silva Maesia, an area of coastal forest north of the Tiber, from the Veientes. He expanded the temple of Jupiter Feretrius (a place to witness solemn oaths... such as: “By Jove! I think she’s got it.”). (Actually, he founded it primarily in order to publicize his territorial successes.)
He was succeeded by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus... i.e., not in the bloodline succession.
2. Lucius Tarquintus Priscus  Demaratus the Corinthian (= Tarquinii)  ...unknown
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, also called Tarquin the Elder or Tarquin I, was the fifth King of Rome reigning from 616 BC to 579 BC. He came from the Etruscan city of Tarquinii.
Lucius, disgruntled with his opportunities in Etruria, migrated to Rome with his wife... at her suggestion. He had been prohibited from obtaining political office in Tarquinii because of the ethnicity of his father, Demaratus the Corinthian. Legend has it that on his arrival in Rome in a chariot, an eagle took his cap, flew away and then returned it back upon his head. Tanaquil, who was skilled in prophecy (as well as shameless self-promotion and public relations), interpreted this as an omen of his future greatness.
In Rome he attained respect through his courtesy. [Obviously, not something likely to occur in today’s political arenas.] King Ancus Marcius himself noticed Tarquinius and, by his last will and testament, appointed Tarquinius guardian of his own sons. [... and thus a demonstration of the reason for courtesy not being passed down from generation to generation. This is because...] upon the death of Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus addressed the Comitia Curiata and convinced them that he should be elected king over Marcius' natural sons, who were in still in their teenage years and unfit to rule... just yet. [And the best part is that he got away with it! He was, after all... polite.]
Tarquinius also increased the number of the Senate by the addition of 100 men from the minor leading families... i.e., stocking the electorate with nobles and semi-nobles beholden to him. This was a pretty sharp move, if for no other reason than among them was the family of the Octavii, the family of the future first emperor Augustus. [Just one more line of credible descent.] There is also the possibility that his election as king came at a price... the back room promotion of his supporters into the Senate.
Tarquinius' first war was waged against the Latins. He took the Latin town of Apiolae by storm and took booty from there back to Rome. He then defeated the Sabines, but only after dangerous street fighting in Rome. After this he further subjugated the Etruscans, thereby incorporating into the Roman sphere of influence the cities of Corniculum, Firulea, Cameria, Crustumerium, Americola, Medullia and Nomentum. After each of his wars, which were always extremely successful, he brought rich plunder to Rome. He doubled the size of the Centuriate Assembly to 1800 people. He clearly understood Republican politics... in much the same way that John Paul II, as pontiff, did, adding ultra conservative cardinals by the dozens.
Tarquinius established the Circus Maximus. [The guy’s a political genius! Karl, eat your heart out.] Raised seating was erected privately by the senators and elites (i.e., at their cost), and other areas were marked out for private citizens. Horses and boxers from Etruria were sent for as the first to participate in the thenceforth annual games. From this bold act, came the tradition of scoreboards with “Home” and “Visitors”. He was also the first to celebrate a Roman triumph, after the Etruscan fashion, wearing a robe of purple and gold, and borne on a chariot drawn by four horses. Sadly (or more likely, blessedly) the name of his campaign manager(s) has been lost to history.
Meanwhile, back at the Roman Ranch, the now adult sons of his predecessor Ancus Marcius had begun to have revolutionary thoughts that for their own bloody reasons, the throne should somehow fall to them. Accordingly, they arranged for Tarquinius Priscus to be assassinated with an axe blow to the head... and thus effectively do an end run around the Senate, votes, and influential plebeians. However, thanks to the intelligent foresight of the queen Tanaquil, the sons of Ancus were not chosen as the next king(s), but rather Tarquinius' son-in-law. Servius Tullius, husband of her daughter Tarquinia, was elected as his successor. Once again, the royal line of descent gets interrupted. Bummer!
Generation No. 90
1. [Place Holder] Two teenage sons  Ancus Marcius  Pompilia (=Marcius)  Numa Pompilius (=Tatia)... or direct from Romulus (=Hersilia)  Romulus (=Hersilia)  Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares) Numitor  Procas  Aventinus  Romulus Silvius  Agrippa  Tibernius Silvius  Capetus  Capys  Atys  Alba  Latinus Silvius  Aeneas Silvius  Silvius (I)  Aeneas (=Lavinia)  Anchises (=Inanna)  Capys (=Themiste)  Assaracus (=Aigesta)  Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris)  Erichthonius (=Astyoche)  Dardanus (=Batea)  ---- Enki (=Electra)  Anu and Antu  Anshar and Kishar  Lahmu and Lahamu  Tiamat and Absu 
2. Servius Tullius  ...unknown
Servius Tullius was the sixth king of ancient Rome and the second king of the Etruscan dynasty.
Servius Tullius (578-535 BC) was the first king to come to power without the consultation of the plebeians, having gained the throne by the contrivance of Tanaquil, his mother-in-law. In this account, Tullius was anointed as a young child to become king, after a ring of fire was seen around his head. He was then raised as a prince.
While Servius’ heritage might have been suspect, or just a bit less than royal, his mother was in theory a princess from Corniculum. His mother had been captured by the Romans, but to pay homage to her regal origins, she was allowed to live in the palace. Another version, quoted in a speech to the Senate by Claudius [See below, Generation No. 98] represented him as a soldier of fortune originally named Macstarna (aka Macstarve, Macdonald). He was allegedly from Etruria [greater Etruscan] who attached himself to Caelius Vibenna. After various adventures Caelius was beaten in battle, but Macstarna came to Rome with the remnants of his army. Macstarna named the Caelian Hill after his deceased friend.
There is also no truth to the suggestion that the name Servius derives from an adjective of servus, "slave." Instead, the adjective is servilis, and there is some evidence to support the Macstarna-turned-Servius story. The latter, in fact, derives from the Oratio Claudii Caesaris and represents an Etruscan explanation being related by the emperor Claudius (a savant in matters Etruscan). Still... if Macstarna was Servius, the questions remain as to why he changed his name, and why he chose that name. The suggestion that Macstarna was his secret identity (like Bruce Wayne) is probably wrong.
After military campaigns against Veii and the Etruscans, Sevius improved the administrative and political organization of Rome. He instituted the new fashion of legally binding procedures on changing one’s name. (Obviously, something with which he was well informed.) He undertook building projects and expanded the city to include the Quirinal, Viminal and Esquiline hills. Favoring the goddess, Fortuna (perhaps he was thinking of the fate of Vibenna), he built several temples to her as well as to Diana. He also built a palace for himself on the Esquiline. [Inasmuch as hell hath no fury like a woman scorned, a king would do well to honor such goddesses as Fortuna and Diana. For example:
Servius Tullius is credited with reforming the army and transforming the collective unwritten organizational structures and functions of the Roman state. His reforms included opening the ranks of the powerful to the nouveau riche and giving every free male a say in self-government, no matter in how soft a voice. It's always appropriate to allow rich people greater powers. It rather goes with the territory... particularly when the sale of status and aristocratic station can become a real cash cow.
The lineage from Demaratus the Corinthian down through Lucius Tarquinius Superbus included three of the seven kings of ancient Rome... and yet this lineage had a decidedly less-than-royal attitude. Inasmuch as many of the prime players were apparently not of the same royal heritage (except as redefined by later historians) there was a strange and inexplicable tendency toward... shudder... democratic ideals! And, horrifying as it seems, in a proto-republican state. Such a combination, obviously carries with it the strong likelihood of a seriously split personality trying vainly to focus. For obvious reasons (as per example, the French Revolution) the idea of commoners gaining power can be one definition of anathema.
Obviously, Servius did not invent the concept of class... or for that matter, that other democratic innovation, the inter net. In fact the prior reforms of Solon at Athens had been along similar class lines. Athens had created new tribes and divided the citizens by wealth so as to break the monopoly of the ancient families... whose exclusive powers were strangling the business and power of the state. [It’s a common problem, what with the same forces operating in modern times -- the upwardly mobile vying for a place in the well-entrenched establishment of wealth and power.]
After completing his history-making first census, Servius used the information from it to divide the new, expanded populace by wealth, age and occupation. Ironically, even at the inception of the census concept, the patricii, including Servius, quickly discovered the principle of the gerrymander. This is the means by which, if voting was to be by district and there was one vote per district, then anyone could effectively invalidate large numbers of people by simply redistricting so as to put them all in one district.
There is some question about whether the top of Roman society was included in the classes at all. The division of classes into the amount of land someone controlled or based on their wealth, obviously does not make much sense when there were fabulously wealthy individuals... individuals who would never deign to associate with, or be lumped together with the newly rich (but relatively poor) people. And yet, in Rome, the junior officers of the army, who were well-to-do youngsters, commanded soldiers of all classes. Romans preferred the same laws to apply to everyone, indicating that the classici (classes) must have included most of the gentes, but the question remains open. [Of course, sons from the elite of Roman society being officers in the military made a lot of sense in that a degree of control over the all powerful military would be considered to be essential to the preservation of the ancient Powers That Be. In fact, class did become an issue in the military and the line of battle in the phalanx formation.
All this class gerrymandering, however, was not exactly a favorite among many elites. Servius had been increasingly favoring the most impoverished people in order to obtain favors from the plebeians. His legislation was thus extremely distasteful to the patrician order, and his reign of forty-four years was brought to a bloody close by a conspiracy in 535 BC headed by his son-in-law Tarquinius Superbus and his own daughter Tullia. The street where Servius died by having a chariot driven over him became known as the "Vicus Sceleratus" (Street of Infamy). It is appears his daughter was driving the chariot, apparently to make a personal statement of her own.
Generation No. 91
1. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus  Lucius Tarquintus Priscus (=Tanaquil)  Demaratus the Corinthian (= Tarquinii)  unknown
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (535 BCE – 496 BCE) was the seventh King of Rome, reigning from 535 until the Roman revolt in 509 BCE, the latter which would lead to the establishment of the Roman Republic. He is more commonly known by his cognomen Tarquinius Superbus and was a member of the Etruscan dynasty of Rome. Superbus was also called Tarquin the Proud and Tarquin II among other titles and/or names. Not surprisingly, Superbus killed the preceding king, his brother-in-law, Servius Tullius, to make himself king of Rome.
In 579 BCE, Superbus' mommy, Queen Tanaquil had aided [they might not have been able to do it otherwise] in the selection of Servius Tullius as heir to the Roman throne following the assassination of her husband, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. The latter dastardly act had actually been carried out by the sons of the previous king (Ancus Marcius). Prior to that assassination, Tarquin's (Superbus’) older brother Aruns Tarquinius had married Servius Tullius' daughter Tullia... who later arranged a plot with Superbus to usurp the throne by first killing Aruns Tarquinius (as part of their pre-coronation arrangement), and then, the king, Servius Tullius in 534 BCE. Superbus then summoned the Senate, in which Tullia proclaimed him the "new king." Immediately thereafter, Tullia, in the tradition of intensely assertive wives and daughters, ran over her father's body with her chariot [aka using her own personal "super bus"]. [Father-daughter relationships can indeed have their moments.]
Superbus promptly orchestrated the murders of key senators, i.e., those who had supported Servius Tullius and proceeded at once to repeal his predecessor's social reforms... thereby seeking to establish a pure despotism in their place. Wars were waged with the Latins and Etruscans, but the lower classes were deprived of their arms and employed in erecting monuments of regal magnificence, while the sovereign recruited his armies from his own retainers and from the forces of foreign allies. His authority over the city was confirmed by: 1) the leveling of the top of the Tarpeian Rock that overlooked the Forum and the removal of its ancient Sabine shrines; 2) the completion of the fortress temple to Jupiter on the nearby Capitoline Hill; and 3) the marriage of his son, Sextus Tarquinius, to the daughter of Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum, an alliance which secured him powerful assistance in the field.
According to one story, when Superbus was approached by the Cumaean Sibyl, she offered him nine books of prophecy at an exorbitant price. Superbus refused, and the Sibyl proceeded to burn three of the nine. She then offered him the remaining books, but at the same price. Superbus hesitated, but refused again. The Sibyl then burned three more books and again offered him the three remaining Sibylline Books at the original price. At last Superbus accepted. As the Sibylline Books were housed in the fortress temple of Jupiter, their legend has been associated with him. [Of course, the first six books described in detail how Superbus would attempt to unsuccessfully negotiate a commercial transaction with Sibyl... while the remaining three books contained the prophecy that the name of Tarquinius was pretty much history.]
Superbus was cruelly and maliciously described as a tyrant and dictator when ruling the kingdom. [And just because he had taken pure despotism to a radically... pardon the insinuation... new height.] He directed much of his attention to ambitious war plans and he eventually annexed various Latin neighboring city states. In 509 BCE the people revolted as a result of his son Sextus Tarquinius' rape of Lucretia, who was an important noblewoman in the kingdom.
Lucretia's kinsman Lucius Junius Brutus (himself a member of the Tarquinian dynasty) and Lucretia's widowed husband, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus (grand-nephew of Tarquinus Priscus and thus also a member of the dynasty) led the revolt. They were also aided by Publius Valerius Poplicola (the latter a distant relative of Pompious Vallium Pepsicola) and Lucretia's aging father, Spurius Lucretius Tricipitinus. The uprising resulted in the exile, after a reign of twenty-five years, of Superbus and his family, and the establishment of the Roman Republic, with Brutus and Collatinus as the first consuls... primarily because they were the only ones who could keep all the names straight.
After his exile, Superbus attempted to gain the support of other Etruscan and Latin kings, claiming that republicanism would spread beyond Rome... apparently in some ancient ‘domino theory”. Even though the powerful Etruscan lord Lars Porsenna of Clusium (modern Chiusi) backed Superbus' return, all efforts to force his way back to the throne were in vain. He left two older sons, Titus Tarquinius and Aruns Tarquinius, who were killed in 509 BCE in one of his father's wars to regain the throne. Superbus died in exile at Cumae, Campania in 496 BCE.
2. Quintus Marcius Rex  Two teenage sons  Ancus Marcius  Pompilia (=Marcius)  Numa Pompilius (=Tatia)... or direct from Romulus (=Hersilia)  Romulus (=Hersilia)  Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares) Numitor  Procas  Aventinus  Romulus Silvius  Agrippa  Tibernius Silvius  Capetus  Capys  Atys  Alba  Latinus Silvius  Aeneas Silvius  Silvius (I)  Aeneas (=Lavinia)  Anchises (=Inanna)  Capys (=Themiste)  Assaracus (=Aigesta)  Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris)  Erichthonius (=Astyoche)  Dardanus (=Batea)  ---- Enki (=Electra)  Anu and Antu  Anshar and Kishar  Lahmu and Lahamu  Tiamat and Absu 
Quintus Marcius Rex was a member of the Marcii Reges, the family founded by the Roman King Ancus Marcius. His father, praetor in 144 BC, built the Aqua Marcia aqueduct, the longest aqueduct of ancient Rome. Marcius carried on war against the Stoeni, a Ligurian people at the foot of the Alps, and obtained a triumph in the following year on account of his victories over them. During his consulship, Marcius lost his only son, a youth of great promise, but Marcius had such a mastery over his feelings that he was able to meet the senate on the day of his son's burial, and still perform his regular official duties.
Somewhat more importantly, however, he also had a daughter, Marcia Regia, who in the true tradition of matriarchal cultures was keeping the bloodline warm and alive. She also managed to insert herself and her children into the up and coming Caesar clan (both Sextus and Julius), by the simple expedient of marrying Gaius Julius Caesar II... the latter who is probably not the Julius Caesar you’re thinking of. That Julius Caesar one was her grandsons.
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