Updated -- 29 August 2011
Beginning in 1935, C. Louis Kervran began the scientific research that would ultimately result in his book, Biological Transmutations, published in 1966. Kervran observed many revolutionary facts, including (but not limited to):
1. Chemical analysis, alone, is inadequate in biology.
2. Chemical properties can vary with the isotopes just as the biological properties do. E.g. if the proportion of heavy water (deuterium oxide) in ordinary water (hydrogen oxide) exceeds 50%, all life becomes impossible.
3. Physics cannot always be applied to biology. This is particularly true in the case of Entropy, where physicists often overlook the energy input that is part of life.
4. Biological organisms can cause nuclear Transmutation of elements.
The latter point is shown by the ‘manufacture’ of calcium sulphate from silica by the agency of the micro-organisms known as Thiobacilli, of which there are several species. In effect, the Thiobacilli require sulphur in order to live, and accomplish the task, such that gypsum is produced on the limestone of monuments, while siliceous sandstone is also attacked by the micro-organisms.
To understand the energy basis of this nuclear Alchemy, we consider first a silicate in an atmosphere of oxygen. Chemically, this can be written
4SiO2 + O2 (nuclear mass = 271.856857)
which can in turn be written in its constituent parts as:
2(28Si) + 2(28Si) + 10(16O)
This transmutes, according to Kervran, into:
2(28Si) + 2(12C + 16O) + 10(16O)
The nuclear mass equation of silicon going to carbon and oxygen is:
27.976929 - 12.000000 - 15.994914 = - 0.017985
The chemicals can also be written as:
2(28Si + 12C) + 2(16O + 16O) + 8(16O)
which further transmutes to:
2(40Ca) + 2(32S) + 8(16O)
Here the silicon and carbon to calcium has a mass equation of:
27.976929 + 12.000000 - 39.962586 = + 0.014343
while the oxygen to sulfur combination yields a mass equation of:
15.9949141 + 15.9949141 - 31.9720727 = + 0.0177555
The sum total of the nuclear reaction can be written in chemical notation as:
2Ca + 2S +2O4 = 2CaSO4 (nuclear mass = 271.828631)
Thus, a silicate has been transmuted into a sulfate (with a nuclear mass differential of 0.028226 converted to energy). This occurs in nature, due to an organism of Thiobacilli.
The energy necessary to transmute 1 atomic mass unit (= 1.6606 x 10-24 grams) of mass is given by:
Energy = mass (light speed)2 = mass (2.997 x 108 m/s) 2
Energy = (1.6606 x10-27 kg)(2.997 x 108 meters/sec)2
Energy = 14.9168 x 10-11 joules
For a mass of 1 gram, however, more energy is required:
E = (10-3 kg)(2.997125 x 108 m/s)2
E = 8.982758 x 1013 joules
Power = E / Time = 8.982758 x 1013 joules / seconds
For the case of 1 gram of Silicon being converted to carbon and oxygen, the mass "deficit" is 0.017985 amu for an original sample of 27.976929 amu. Thus the power, P to convert 1 gram of Silicon over 100 years is:
P = (0.017985/27.976929)(8.982758 x 1013 j)/(100 year)
P = (5.7746 x 1010 j)/(100 y)(365 d)(24 hr)(60m)(60s)
P = (5.7746 x 1010 j)/(3.1536 x 109 sec)
P = 18.3112 watts = Power needed to overcome deficit
The overall power "gain" in the formation of the Calcium Sulfate comes from the total mass conversion process:
Power gained = (0.028226/0.017985) x 18.3112 watts
Power gained = (1.5694)(18.3112 w) = 28.7376 watts
This shows that there is indeed a net gain. Bugs are clearly alchemists on a significant scale! All they really need are equal numbers of protons and nucleons to yield the type of transmutation thus demonstrated, at least in a biological reaction. One example of this is that potassium can be said to have two origins: sodium plus oxygen and calcium minus hydrogen. It’s also noteworthy that reversibility does not take place as in chemistry.
Biological transmutations can be used to improve the healing of bone fractures. The time of healing is quicker after administration of organic silica extracts obtain from horsetail, than after giving calcium! In effect, in order to get recalcification, mineral calcium should not be administered; instead, conditions must be established for the ‘manufacture’ of calcium by an organism.
Apparently, Alchemy is the wave of the future! (Not to mention the past.)
2003© Copyright Dan Sewell Ward, All Rights Reserved [Feedback]