Updated -- 29 August 2011
A widely acknowledged truism is that knowledge is power. Significantly, secret knowledge or teachings held by a limited elite may constitute the potential for even greater power. It is apparently for this reason that the world history of the last several thousand years has had embedded in its scope the underlying theme of the struggle for control and power based on esoteric (“for the few”) knowledge, understandings, and wisdom.
But there are a LOT of profound secrets. From the mystery schools of ancient Egypt and Greece, to the Jerusalem treasures uncovered by the Knights Templar, to the holdings of knowledge and ancient records by ultra secret societies in the Middle Ages (such as the Priory Notre Dame de Sion), to the modern day guarded secrets of Freemasonry, the Illuminati, the Trilateral Commission, and a host of other alleged conspiracy-laden organizations -- the greatest heritage of the human race has been carefully and studiously withheld from the mainstream of society. Understandings and techniques which afforded the potential for enormous enlightenment and evolution of the individual have been held for the exclusive use of those in power.
At the same time, such secrecy may have been warranted (and still may be) as a means of preserving the knowledge during times of inquisitions, book-burnings, and when the mainstream of society was still unprepared (for whatever reason) for the reality of truth. It is this motive which has distinguished the access to such things as the Tree of Life to groups belonging to the exoteric (“for the many”) and esoteric (“for the few”) camps.
(4/1/07) The clothing of possibly profound truths in scary or unappealing disquises is often used to separate the true seekers from the merely idly curious. A relatively recent possible example is the movie, The Ninth Gate, which is seemingly about satanic rituals and other less worthy activities. However, upon closer investigation one discovers the possibility of some serious, deep philosophical teachings which could rather straightforwardly be used toward a more positive enlightenment. Accordingly, those who do not look too deeply may be missing the point entirely, while others who have taken the time to look deeper may have found all manner of gold.
The fact that there have been many forces (particularly religions) which have made every effort (moral and immoral) to attack truth as a means of preserving their own view of the universe is perhaps the primary case in point. Curiously, the quest for the outright destruction (as in the case of the burning of the Library of Alexandria,) or the placing of severe limitations on the dissemination of knowledge is also based on control and power issues. Within the confines of this world-class power struggle, much esoteric wisdom and knowledge has been kept from public view both as a means of protecting the underlying truths, as well as using them (or eliminating them) in order to profit thereby.
Until now. Suddenly (in historical terms) Pandora’s lovely box has been overturned and individuals outside the elite groups of royalty and ancestral power-mongers have begun to glimpse, study, and understand the heretofore secrets of esoteric knowledge. And with the dissemination of such understanding into the mainstream, the control of one human over another is being lessened, while the inherent soul potential for any individual is being increased. For the individual seeker of truth and enlightenment, suddenly the History 009 of Conspiracies to deny the existence of such wisdom becomes less important than the understandings of how one applies these fundamental teachings.
Clearly, much of what is known today derives from the normally open process of learning and discovery down through the ages. Historically, we have the dissemination of knowledge via apprenticeship, where the holder of the knowledge (the Master) shares his understanding with someone (the Apprentice) who has earned the “rights” to such knowledge through years of labor and the demonstration of his or her worthiness to be gifted the right the learn and pass on the knowledge. Schools have also existed to disseminate wisdom and knowledge, with such schools ranging in size from those carefully limited mystery schools to schools for the greater elite and thence to public education. (Predictably, the quality and extent of such teachings have, in general, been inversely proportional to the size or selection of the student body.)
But the fundamental question concerning esoteric knowledge is whether such teachings are simply the human heritage derived from masters and schools, or instead, is due to some form of “granting access to esoteric knowledge” by some external agency. Such an external agency might be ancient terrestrial civilizations which are no longer extant (e.g. Atlantis), members of extraterrestrial civilizations communicating with or visiting Earth, or divine intervention by a genuine deity or deities.
The Sumerian Civilization constitutes the earliest record of human endeavor which is amply supported by physical evidence in the form of writings and artifacts. Particularly striking is the apparent fact that, quite suddenly in historical terms, civilization blossomed in the Tigris-Euphrates valley (“the land between the rivers”) with all manner of new and heretofore absent innovations and aspects of civilization. Suddenly there was writing, animal husbandry, irrigation for farming, temples for worship, and so forth and so on.
The Sumerian record is quite clear about the source of such civilized attributes. They called these gifts The Me and were derived directly from the gods. Specifically, the Me were the “holy laws of heaven and earth”, and included such diverse elements as kingship, priesthood, truth, dagger and sword, art of prostitution, resounding musical instruments, arts of power and treachery, lamentations and rejoicing of the heart, deceit, perceptive ear, holy purification rites, dismay, counseling, assembled family, and procreation. It is also worth mentioning such attributes included the making of beer! (Accordingly, one can always ask the important question: “Is the beer from modern microbreweries significantly better than the beer given the Sumerians by the Annunaki?”)
Perhaps more significantly for our purposes, the source of the Me were the Sumerian gods, which were referred to collectively as the “Annunaki”. In one myth the Sumerian God of Wisdom, Enki, is supposedly tricked by Inanna, the “Queen of Heaven” into giving her the Me, which she can in turn take back to her city and share with her subjects. The fact that Enki may have allowed such a transfer of secret knowledge is less relevant than the apparent fact that the gods of Sumer were the original source of civilization and its attributes -- and quite possibly the source of exoteric teachings and wisdom. (It has been said that, if an ancient story agrees with a religion, it is called history. If it does not agree with that religion, it is called myth.)
Zecharia Sitchin , William Bramley , Laurence Gardner , and several others have provided convincing evidence that the Sumerian Annunaki were in reality extraterrestrials who came to earth at least 7000 years ago (or possibly much earlier), and created man -- apparently through genetic manipulations of man’s early ancestors. The Annunaki did so, apparently, in order to have subjects which could provide them with food, palaces, luxuries, gold (primarily gold), and perhaps incidentally to worship the Annunaki as gods. The Sumerian word, Annunaki, does in fact mean “those who from heaven to earth came.” Furthermore, a careful reading of Genesis, the first book of the Bible’s Old Testament, invariably yields the fact there was clearly more than one god of Genesis. It is also clear the Book of Genesis is in basic agreement with the ancient Sumerian texts with respect to a pantheon of Gods and Goddesses.
The critical factor with respect to the apparent existence (at least in ancient times) of extraterrestrials who visited the earth and substantially influenced the course of human history is that the knowledge possessed by such advanced beings (including the ability to make their way to earth) may far exceed all the exoteric (“for the many”) knowledge now available to modern society. This is really the key. What possible, valuable information is still locked away in some repository and being denied to the human race?
A significant factor in this regard is the question as to whether or not the Annunaki are still here. If, in fact, they have remained or returned to earth, would they now deem the human race as fit to learn all they’ve learned, or would they continue to hold whatever information they have -- for whatever reasons (power, parental hesitation, etceteras)?
This answer to the latter question is not immediately obvious, although Ward  and others have speculated on such possibilities. But the key to the evolution of mankind may be less the idea of whether or not there is an ongoing conspiracy of silence, but what wisdom or knowledge may still be hidden. An intriguing and much more relevant question is what have humans learned in the last several thousand years, and how much more information would such extraterrestrials still possess which would be essential to modern man? Alternatively, the question is how much of the knowledge has come down to us via mystery schools and secret societies, how much is still being held -- for whatever reasons -- and how much have we learned in the interim without having the advantage of the knowledge being handed to us on a silver (or gold) platter?
Much of the original knowledge and wisdom of the ancients and/or extraterrestrial source has been contained in ancient mystery schools, alchemical and secret societies, and ancient writings and artifacts. Ancient Egypt appears to have been an extremely important repository of knowledge, stemming back thousands of years before the Library, Museion, and Pharos of Alexandria. It seems clear, for example, that Moses -- as a Prince of Egypt -- was amply instructed in the ancient mysteries, and shared a portion of his education with the Hebrews in the form of the Ark of the Covenant.
The Knights Templar came into existence during the Crusades at the turn of the last millennium, and it was they who apparently discovered a wealth of information contained in key spots in the environs of Jerusalem. Curiously, a great deal of knowledge may also have derived from Moslem sources, despite the adversarial relationship between the Crusaders and Moslem defenders of the faith and Holy Land.
From the Knights Templar -- beginning during the early days of Catholic Church attacks (e.g. the Encyclical of Condemnation), inquisitions and slaughter (including The Albigensian Crusade) -- the basic structure, knowledge and teachings passed into ultra secret organizations, such as the Priory Notre Dame de Sion, and ultimately, perhaps, Freemasonry. The Priory de Sion has in this century revealed its existence, and Freemasonry is well known throughout the world (although it is likely that 99+% of Freemasons haven’t a clue as to what knowledge is really still secret, and/or the true meaning of most of the rituals they so zealously perform).
In more recent times, we have modern day mystery schools -- whose price of admittance has become Money (as opposed to maturity, understanding, wisdom, or any other attribute of the early mystery school initiates). At the same time, there are groups and individuals delving into Alchemy, Magic, Sacred Geometry, and other curious and bewildering topics. And of course there are no limits on the number of conspiratorial societies -- from the Illuminati, The Trilateral Commission, The Club of Rome, Skull and Bones, NASA, Barney the Dinosaur and his friends, and so forth.
At the risk of dismissing the relevance of the vast majority of alleged Conspiracies, one must still wonder exactly what information and knowledge is being held in secret. Are these secret societies any more than “networking communities” which rely on who one knows instead of what one knows? It seems likely that there exists some secret wisdom, but the number of insiders who know what it is may be a very small number indeed.
The good news is that such information has become increasingly available outside such secret societies. This has been due in large part to the discovery and decipherment of ancient writings. These writings includes such things as The Egyptian Book of the Dead, the Dead Sea Scrolls and Dag Hamaraji scrolls. In addition, much of the more esoteric wisdom in the form of Ha Qabala, Tarot, and other books have been handed down through the ages and outside the confines of secret societies. There is additional evidence that much the information is being purposefully disseminated, as if a decision as been made to bring a much larger segment of the population into the fold of understanding.
Conversely, there also appear to be concerted efforts to avoid disclosure of the true history of the world. The most notable example involves a decision on the part of the Supreme Court of Israel to award to a handful of alleged experts the sole right to decipher and disseminate the vast bulk of the Dead Sea Scrolls -- a decision which appears to be motivated as a means of preventing any challenges to the current religious hierarchies on the basis of what the Scrolls say actually happened. Such historical dishonesty and fear-based skullduggery is an unfortunate state of affairs, but such resistance to truth is likely futile and doomed to failure. Truth has a way of inevitably rising to the surface!
Ancient artifacts, from The Great Pyramids of Giza to the pyramids of Teotihuacan to more mundane objects may also give us clues as to the attributes of secret knowledge. In fact, one way of judging the degree or amount of profound wisdom which may have been held (or which is still being held in secret) is to consider the state of technology as described in ancient writings and in still existing artifacts from ancient times.
For example, many of the ancient descriptions of flying vehicles from Sumerian and Biblical sources, appear to be nothing more than rocket propelled devices. But these we could duplicate today. One might believe a weapon of immense destruction to be the causative agent for the annihilation of Sodom and Gomorrah (and the subsequent desolation of Sumer via what appears to be radioactive fallout), but modern man can also build atomic bombs (and generate fallout).
But could we duplicate, i.e. build -- from a purely technological viewpoint -- the Great Pyramids of Giza? Could we achieve lifetimes on the level of the ancient patriarchs of the Bible who reportedly lived close to a thousand years? Aye, there’s the rub. While modern technology may be able to accomplish many wonders, it appears that there are a few limitations. There are also a few obvious examples of inexplicable and astounding features that dot the landscape of our globe that we apparently cannot explain.
We “know”, for example, that:
· The Great Pyramids of Giza are aligned in the same manner as the three stars (Mintaka, Al Nitak, and Al Nilam) in the “belt” of the Orion Constellation ,
· The Cydonia region of the planet Mars is mimicked by the countryside of England west of London and includes Stonehenge, Avebury, Glastonbury, Weston Super-Mare and Brent’s Knoll (and on a smaller scale, Avebury and Silbury Hill) ,
· The cathedrals of northern France -- all dedicated to Mary Magdalene -- form the exact pattern of the zodiacal constellation in Virgo ,
· The area around Rennes le Chateau in southern France form a five-pointed star (in the tradition of Sacred Geometry, as well as Wicca) ,
· Labyrinths from all over the world have identical characteristics (from those carved in stone in Cornwall some 5000 years ago to those in grass and stone throughout Europe to ancient depictions in American Indian tribes ) [observed by the author],
· All of the orbits (and to a lesser degree the size) of the planets of our solar system are related to each other by specific geometrical regular polygons and multi-pointed stars (typically of three to six sides) . Furthermore, these relationships between the planets (as well as between the moons of Jupiter and Saturn) are all related to the transcendental numbers, p and f, in sacred mathematics ,
· Enigmatic “Crop Circles” have proliferated throughout England and the world and invariably display profound geometries, and
· Activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and even artificial events appear designed for numerical or geometrical reasons [7, Hoagland]. E.g. July 20th appears to have unusual significance (and which may be related to Egyptian Mythology -- specifically the births of Osiris, Isis, Seth, Horus, and others).
But what does all of these observations tell us? How do we explain the why? What is the significance of these and the many other artifacts of our world?
If we try to apply our knowledge of Sacred Geometry, we realize that astronomy seems ruled by relationships of geometry and Sacred Mathematics (a factor generally not recognized or approved by mainstream astronomers), while Astrology readily admits to an adherence to such rules (but not necessarily why the rules apply). Numerology, the study of numbers as having meanings far in excess of simple mathematics, is considered to be valid (as is Astrology) in understanding basic psychological and physical characteristics of human beings from all walks of life. Geomatria -- a more ancient form of numerology -- claims the same, if not greater, capabilities. The Tarot also purports to describe and/or predict events and situations, but more specifically with the use of symbolism (such as geometrical shapes and numbers) in lieu of written or spoken languages. Consolidating the attributes of astrology, numerology, and the Tarot is the Ha Qabala (also known as the Jewish mystical Kaballa, the Christian Caballa, or the more ecumenical, Qabbala). This tradition ostensibly provides the many paths by which the individual can reach enlightenment and/or transformation into a higher realm of existence.
But is this anything more than religion, or the faith thereof? Is the use of the five-pointed star (which is imminently related to The Golden Mean) anything more than an attempt by practitioners of Wicca to use magical devices to accomplish one’s aims and goals, or to justify their beliefs? Is the Vesica Pisces and its related “Flower of Life” anything more than attractive decorations? Does Feng Shui, the Chinese art of placement really add to the betterment of one’s living conditions?
Interestingly, the answer appears to be “Yes!” Stepping into a crop circle in the form of a Vesica Pisces (two interlocked circles -- and the basis for the Christian symbol) will deliver to a moderately sensitized human being, the unexpected feeling of a rush of energy. Such an energy boost is similar to stepping into the confines of Stonehenge, that ancient stone monument to sacred geometry on the plains of England (and which is visited in any one year by more people than is believed to have lived on the planet at the time the site was constructed!). Even Feng Shui appears to improve one’s living condition.
As an improvement to the quality of life of an individual, probably nothing is more obvious than Music. And yet music is inherently based on sacred numbers/geometry. One example, is that the famous 3-4-5 right triangle (the only right triangle which uses only whole numbers -- or multiples of 3-4-5), can easily produce the first three strings of a well tuned guitar. In Nada Brahma, The World is Sound, it is even suggested that music and sound physically manifest the material world -- in much the same fashion that the modern, state-of-the-art theory of mainstream physics claims that its theory of Superstrings does. It’s all part of harmony, vibration, resonance, and vibrancy which simultaneously describe music and the highest quality of life in a material world, an argument echoed by Paul White in his description of Underground Cities.
This does not explain why geometry and numerology have such a profound effect on human life, but it does make it clear that it’s fundamental to the universe’s design -- and just possibly, its purpose.
A key question is whether or not the proliferation of our understanding of sacred geometry and mathematics is the result of accidental discovery or intentional dissemination of information. On the one hand, geometry and numbers are imminently discoverable, due in part to the simplicity of the logical process it employs. All one really need do is ask the right question, and the mathematics fairly rushes to show itself. Thus is not necessary for new hints -- once basic arithmetic and geometry are introduced -- in order to move rapidly into uncovering all manner of intriguing facts.
But is there more of which we are unaware? Is the current trend in state-of-the-art physics into Zero-Point Energy and Multiple Dimensions beyond our four-dimensional space-time continuum, a foray into heretofore secret knowledge, or merely the advance of knowledge into the reality of the universe? Significantly, did any of our ancestors or their alleged extraterrestrials mentors and teachers know about the zero-point? Is there any evidence to suggest they were (or are) as advanced as modern man?
(Theoretically, there are only two possibilities: One is that there are extraterrestrials who are more intelligent than we are, and the other that we are the most intelligent species in the universe. “Either way, it’s a mighty sobering thought.” [Pogo Possum 1950])
Basically, this returns us to the questions posed before as to our ability to build the Great Pyramids of Giza and to live a thousand years. One might argue that the patriarchs of Genesis were only purported to have lived over nine hundred years, but the existence of the Great Pyramids -- and the inability of subsequent generations of ancient pyramid builders to duplicate the size and steep angles of those three great pyramids -- suggests that the evidence is on the side of: “There are things we don’t know how to do yet.”
It is also noteworthy that there do not appear to be individuals of any shape or form who are currently managing to live a thousand years on the planet!
Nevertheless, if there is any additional secrets in the trust of secret organizations, one would have to suspect they must relate to the category of what is variously described as: “Star Fire”, the ORME (Orbitally Rearranged Monoatomic Elements), “Manna”, “the white powder of gold”, and so forth.
Sitchin  makes the case that the Anunnaki took up residence on Earth in a long term quest to obtain gold with which to place in the atmosphere of their home planet, Nibiru. This reasoning is almost certainly wrong. Clearly, this concept does not explain the biblical stories of Manna (a term derived from the question, “What is it?”) and the constant repetition of this fundamental question in the Egyptian Book of the Dead . Thus other solutions must of necessity be sought.
Gardner , on the other hand, advocates the concept that the “Star Fire” was the menstrual blood of Annunaki goddesses whose ingestion by various royal figures (such as the patriarchs of the Book of Genesis) allowed them to live for a thousand years, and have their level of thinking, living, and experiencing greatly heightened. Gardner also believes that at some point (roughly 2000 BCE) this source was removed from the planet and a substitute was required in the form of what David Hudson  calls the ORME.
The ORME refers to the eight so-called “precious metals” (Gold, Silver, Platinum, Iridium, Rhodium, Palladium, and Osmium) which when converted into a monoatomic state, become a white powder. In this form the ORME was supposedly ingested in the same manner as the Starfire. Critically important, however, is the claim by both Gardner and Hudson (and supported in part by Puthoff ) to the effect that the “white powder of gold” had a significantly reduced weight when transferred from yellow gold to white powder, and a reduced weight to anything it touched. Furthermore, the ORME might be connected with the phenomena of Superconductivity in modern physics, and ultimately the enlightenment of human beings. The real key here, according to Gardner , is that with substantial quantities of the ORME and its reduced gravitational effect, the huge stone blocks of the Great Pyramids could easily be “hoisted” and set into place. The fact that there may be internal geometries of the stones in the pyramid which allow for the steep angle of the pyramids’ slopes is just part of the overall package.
The implication of all of the above is that there may indeed be some secrets which are still esoteric and being maintained until the “few” who are cognizant of them see fit to grant them to a wider audience. Clearly one can (humorously) ask the question, “Where’s a menstruating extraterrestrial goddess when you need one? But it is just plausible that the potentially longer lives envisioned by access to the Starfire has its drawbacks.
For example, if one gauges the desirability of such long lives based on the lives of the extraterrestrials as given to us by Sumerian, Egyptian, and other mythologies, then one is astounded by two facts. One is that these so-called gods and goddesses constitute a fundamentally dysfunctional family. Not something to be enthusiastically emulated. The second factor is that in again referencing the many myths, one is struck by the apparently singular lack of technological progress over the multiple millennia lived by the Annunaki.
This raises the question as to whether or not short lifetimes imply significantly quicker learning curves. There may be a distinct advantage to shorter lives, in that they are much more intense, and allow for much greater chaos (and opportunity) in the course of time. Extremely long lived beings may of necessity have to concentrate on very stable and structured societies, if only to avoid killing each other. Short lifetimes -- and if there is any validity to theories of reincarnation, multiple short lifetimes -- may have their own advantages. Assuming a sense of Justice in the universe, there may be compensation for short lifetimes in terms of rampant creativity.
In addition to the Starfire or ORME, there may also be mathematical secrets. One of the most obvious questions would concern the possible connection between the ORME and Sacred Geometry. Based on the concept of “As above, so below”, and the apparent similarity between atoms with orbiting electrons and suns with orbiting planets (in which the Golden Mean, phi, and sacred geometry are imminently connected), then should not the electronic / nuclear structure of ORME elements reflect the same kind of connections?
The Fifth Element shows the plausible connection between unconditional love, new energy, and Sacred Geometry. What more logical rationale would one need to connect the superconducting, levitating, and astounding possible attributes of the ORME with the sacred mathematics which appear to rule the universe!
Clearly, a plethora of evidence exists to suggest that a profoundly important and basic science and accompanying wisdom exist which are capable of explaining a vast array of otherwise anomalous observations, but that such wisdom, science, and knowledge have been intentionally withheld for millennia from the mainstream of modern society. The source and extent of this knowledge is substantial, as well as the evidence hinting at the gradual discovery and/or dissemination of these esoteric teachings and the degree to which critical information still exists in various secret societies, mystery schools, and allegedly conspiracy-laden organizations. Of particular importance are the subjects of Sacred Science (including mathematics, physics, and health/longevity subjects), and the degree to which such subjects are being withheld from seekers and investigators.
In the final analysis, however, there does appear to be many questions begging for answers, and that eager and enthusiastic attempts will be rewarded. The very existence of the ever increasing complexity and beauty of crop circles makes it clear that there is much to learn (and the opportunity to thoroughly enjoy oneself in the process). If great secrets and esoteric mysteries are indeed being withheld from us, the fact remains that the thrill and joy of discovery of such secrets on a continuing basis makes the process significantly more important than the goal of knowing it all. In this view, it’s no longer a question of whether or not someone is worthy of knowing the secrets, but rather an encouragement to go out and discover the wonders of the universe for one’s self. In effect, there’s still room at the top of the learning curve for anyone interested in pursuing the matter.
 Wolkstein, Diane and Kramer, Samuel Noah, Inanna, Queen of Heaven and Earth, Harper & Row, New York, 1983.
 Sitchin, Zecharia, The Wars of Gods and Men, Avon Books, New York. [Sitchin has written some seven books on the subject, ranging from Twelfth Planet to Stairway to Heaven to Genesis Revisited (all available from Avon Books, New York), 1985.]
 Bramley, William, The Gods of Eden, Avon Books, New York, 1989.
 Gardner, Laurence, Genesis of the Grail Kings, The Pendragon Legacy of Adam and Eve, Bantam Press, New York, 1999.
 Ward, Dan S., “Are the Extraterrestrials Who First Came to Earth Still Here?”, Proceedings of the International Forum on New Science, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1995. Also, Ward, Dan Sewell, “Violations of the Prime Directive”, Proceedings of the International Forum on New Science, Denver, Colorado, 1996.
 Lemesurier, Peter, The Great Pyramid Decoded, Barnes & Noble, New York, 1977, 1996. Hancock, Graham, Fingerprints of the Gods, Crown Publishers, New York, 1995.
 Percy, David S. and Myers, David P., Two-Thirds, Aulis Publishers, London, 1993. Ward, Dan S., “Etchilhampton and Other Crop Circles”, Proceedings of the International Forum on New Science, Denver, Colorado, 1996. Also, <http://www.enterprisemission.com>, aka Richard Hoagland, 1999.
 Gardner, Laurence, Bloodline of the Holy Grail, The Hidden Lineage of Jesus Revealed, Barnes & Noble, New York, 1996.
 Baigent, Michael, Leigh, Richard, and Lincoln, Henry, The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail, A Dell Book London, 1982.
 Martineau, John, A Book of Coincidence, Wooden Books, Powys, Wales, 1995.
 Ward, Dan Sewell, “Planetary Zero-Point Energies”, Proceedings of the Association for New Science Conference, Denver, Colorado, 1997.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Papyrus of Ani, Dover Publications, New York, 1967 (1985).
 Hudson, David, “Orbitally Rearranged Mono-atomic Elements”, Proceedings of the International Forum on New Science, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1994.
 Puthoff, H. E., “Gravity as a Zero-Point-Fluctuation Force,” Physical Review A, Vol 39, No. 5, pg 2333-2342, March 1, 1989.
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