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Battle of Kadesh

New -- 20 March 2004


This page on the Battle of Kadesh can be said to be a tributary of the larger work, the Annals of Earth. It enlarges upon the treatise contained especially in Episode XI and XII of those Annals wherein the chronology of ancient Egypt is revised in accordance with the theories of Immanuel Velikovsky and in order to connect Egyptian history with the histories of the contemporary empires in the rest of the ancient world.


The Battle of Kadesh was a famous encounter between Egyptians and Hittites for control of Syria . In many respects, the battle was more of “a large-scale skirmish preceding the decisive encounter which in the end never took place.” [1] Nevertheless it likely played a major part in what was a decisive war between two notable powers. This may have been due in part to the fact that the Egyptians apparently lost the initiative and about a third of their troops. Duh. Naturally, the Egyptian pharaoh claimed a splendid victory and ignored his tactical mistakes. An excellent treatise on the account is provided in reference [1].

The battle is also noteworthy in terms of exactly who was fighting whom. Traditional chronology places the battle during the fifth year of the reign of Ramses II, circa 1299 B.C.E. [1] However, as pointed out by this same author,

Like all dates of this period, this one should be taken with a grain of salt. The events took place in the 5th year of the reign of Ramses II. It is unfortunately unknown when his reign began.” [ emhasis added]

A decidedly alternative view is taken by this website and Speciality Interests [2]. The latter specifically compares the Battle of Kadesh with the Battle of Carchemish, and simultaneously equates Pharaoh Ramses II with Pharaoh Necho. This identification is identical to that of Immanuel Velikovsky‘s reconstruction of history and places the Battle of Kadesh in the year 605 B.C.E. The effect of this revised chronology is to make contemporaries of the Biblical Jeremiah and the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II.

Speciality Interests [2] makes a good case for the 605 B.C.E. date by comparing phrases and statements from sources on either side of the battle. For example:


The Egyptian army was taken by surprise `dismayed and turned back.' Palestine was taken by the Chaldeans. [Jeremiah 46:5, 8-10] .

Suddenly attacked, "the infantry and chariotry of His Majesty were discomfited." [`Poem of the Battle of Kadesh'; Sec. 325; `Annals of Ramses II']

"Their mighty men are beaten down, fled apace, and look back." Jeremiah 46:5 .

"I charged all countries while I was alone, my infantry and my chariotry having forsaken me. Not one among them stood to turn about." [`Annals of Ramses II', Sec. 327]

"...stumble and fall toward the north." Jeremiah 46:6 .

"Then the infantry and chariotry of His Majesty were discomfited before them while going northward." [`Annals of Ramses II., Sec. 325]

This also equates the Hittite King Hattusilis with Nebuchadnezzar.

The parallels “found in the Egyptian account and in the Bible represent grid points which in the kind of events, their chronological order, timing and outcomes are unique points which never repeated themselves in history and therefore pin down the time of Ramses II into the 7th/6th century. Not only are these 9 points sufficient evidence but also the close chronological correlation and interlocking reigns of Ramses II, Nebuchadnezzar and King Jehoiakim of Judah demand the same need to revise ancient history and bring Ramses II into the time of Jeremiah.” [2]

An additional reference [3] provides yet more detail on this subject, but still assumes the earlier, more traditional dates for the reign of Ramses II.

Immanuel Velikovsky‘s claim of ancient history being one of Ages in Chaos continues to find support. Few historians doubt the adage that “History is written by the winners”, but it is becoming ever more apparent that the timing of such history – particularly the ancient variety – is still being disputed.

Se la vie.



[1] http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/ramseskadeshcampaign.htm

[2] http://www.specialtyinterests.net/comparison.html

[3] http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Styx/7480/page3.htm



Episode XII -- From Moses to Cleopatra

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Interlude II -- MesoAmerica




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